دروس في الترجمة التحريرية للمبتدئين

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

في هذا الرابط ملف يتضمن محاضرات أساسية في الترجمة للمبتدئين.



Fear no more the heat of the sun

Prof. Dr. Mohammed Akram Sa’adeddin (Passed away 2001)
Madhar Battah (passed away 2006)
Prof. Dr. Muhammad Zughoul (passed away 2008)

With a feeling of bitterness, a choke in the throat, an ache in the heart, and tears slowly escaping the eyes out of agony and pain, I am writing this.  For each of them, I would have given up my life, my soul, my death.  But, that is the will of God, and let it be so.  Rahmatu Allahi Alayhem Jamee’an. Amen.

Fear no more the heat o’ the sun;
Nor the furious winter’s rages,
Thou thy worldly task hast done,
Home art gone, and ta’en thy wages;
Golden lads and girls all must,
As chimney sweepers come to dust.

Fear no more the frown of the great,
Thou art past the tyrant’s stroke:
Care no more to clothe and eat;
To thee the reed is as the oak:
The sceptre, learning, physic, must
All follow this, and come to dust.

Fear no more the lightning-flash,
Nor the all-dread thunder-stone;
Fear not slander, censure rash;
Thou hast finished joy and moan;
All lovers young, all lovers must
Consign to thee, and come to dust.

No exorciser harm thee!
Nor no witchcraft charm thee!
Ghost unlaid forbear thee!
Nothing ill come near thee!
Quiet consummation have;
And renowned be thy grave

رحلة إلى الماضي

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

في أحد ايام الشتاء المكفهّرة، كانت الساعة الثالثة أو تزيد قليلا. كنا في قاعة الصف ننتظر المعلم أو لعلنا كنا نمضي وقتنا في فترة الاستراحة بين الصفوف.

أردت أن أخترع شيئا يكسر الملل فأخذت دفتري وطلبت من أحد الزملاء في الصف أن يضع عليه توقيعه للذكرى. كنت اريد أن أكتب فوق توقيعه كلاما يفيد بأنه مدين لي بمبلغ كبير، وهكذا نكسر الملل الرتيب بمثل هذا المقلب الذي راج فترة من الزمن بين طلاب المدارس الثانوية.

كان صاحبي وقتها خطاطا فنانا فوقَّع لي على الدفتر ولكنه كتب فوق التوقيع عبارة بخطه الجميل:

“الذكرى ناقوسٌ يدق في عالم النسيان”

وكأني أشعر بناقوس كبير يتهادى ليدق في رأسي دقة دقة…. وتتداعى أحداث العمر تعصف بي وتأخذني في قطار زمن أكاد أسمع صوت صفارته منطلقا إلى الخلف مع تسارع عقارب الساعة إلى الوراء في رحلة إلى الماضي البعيد…….

تحية إلى جامعة العلوم التطبيقية

السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته

تحية طيبة وعطرة للأساتذة الافاضل في كلية الآداب جميعاً في جامعة العلوم التطبيقية/ الاردن.  يستحقون الاحترام والتقدير على تخريجهم لافواج عديدة من المترجمين الأكفياء في الأردن.  ورعم إننا نطمح لمزيد من التفوق، لندعو الجامعة إلى اتخاذ  كافة التدابير لإيصال التعليم على أفضل وجه.

أشكر بشكل خاص الأخوة الأعزاء :

د. كاظم قطوس

د. شوقي حوراني

د. أسعد أبو لبدة

طلابكم يقولون إنهم فخورون بكم ونحن فخورون بكم أيضاً.

A study in learner’s dictionaries

What Should a Learner’s Dictionary Include?

-An evaluative study of the quality and effectiveness of three English-English Learners Dictionaries-


The present study aims at the comparison and contrast of three monolingual (English-English) dictionaries namely: Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current EnglishCollins Cobuild English Language Dictionary and Cambridge International Dictionary of English, with the learner in mind. It has been found that there are differences in presenting lexical items in each of the three dictionaries, which prompted me to invent a heuristic checklist against which each dictionary is evaluated with reference to twenty six representative lexical items chosen at random. While CCELD has been evaluated as No.1 among the three dictionaries, the research is not meant to prefer one dictionary to another as much as to reveal the characteristics that can meet the persisting needs of the learner. Based on linguistic and statistical analysis, the discussion of the research results, indeed, concludes that a good learner’s dictionary is more than a paraphrase a word.

Abbreviations and definitions of terms used in this study

CCELD : Collins Cobuild English Language Dictionary

CIDE : Cambridge International Dictionary of English

OLDCE : Oxford Learner’s Dictionary of Current English

Par= Paraphrase DF= Derivational Forms
Lexi= Lexical relations IF= Inflectional Forms
FT= Formality and register BrP= British Pronunciation
CIE= Collocations, Idioms and Fixed Expressions AmP= American Pronunciation
PS= Part of Speech DIC= Dictionary
CL= Classification of Lexemes Var= Variation of usage
VAS= Verb Argument Structure T= Total.
1= A method is available 0= A method is not available

· Lexical relations: synonyms, antonyms, hyponyms etc

· Classification of Lexemes: attributive or predicative or gradable (adjective), countable or uncountable (nouns), etc.

· Variation of usage: variation according to country as Britain, USA, Australia, etc, Variation in spelling.

· Verb Argument Structure transitive, intransitive, ditransitive etc.

· Formality and register: formal, informal, slang, colloquial, vulgar, scientific, literary, medical etc.

I. Statement of Problem

A learner’s dictionary is by definition targeted to satisfy the needs of the learner who should be helped not only to learn the meanings of lexical items (new to him/her), but also how to use each correctly and idiomatically.  It is our belief, therefore, that any dictionary, especially a learner’s dictionary should employ specific ‘methods’ of presenting a word to the learner.  This paper propounds a set of methods to help assess the efficiency of an English-English dictionary (See Appendix 3).

The present piece of research will shed light on these methods with reference to the assessment of three English-English dictionaries, namely Cambridge International Dictionary of English (CIDE), the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English (OLDCE) and Collins Cobuild English Language Dictionary (CCELD).

II- Review of Related Literature

II.1. Bobda (1998)

In his article on British and American usage, Bobda argues that “the divergences between American and British English pose problems of intelligibility that cannot be altogether overlooked” (Bobda: 1998, 17). Not only do these divergences emerge on the spelling or semantic levels, but also transcend them to the syntactic properties of words.  Quoted below are some interesting examples provided by Bobda:

– “Accommodation”: Singular (British English) è Plural (US English ) (Bobda:1998, 16)

– “Snuck out” in British English è sneaked out (US English) (Bobda: 1998, 16).

– “visited with my friends (American English) for visited my friends(British English)” (Bobda: 1998, 16) “underlines added”

The above example shows that the uncountable becomes countable, the transitive becomes intransitive and so forth. With learner’s dictionaries in mind, there is no doubt that problems of usage among the different varieties of English are significant.

II.2. Ahulu (1998)

Samuel Ahulu, in his article entitled Grammatical Variation in International English, points to the grammatical divergences existing between standard English on the one hand, and written English in postcolonial countries on the other. Noun countability, for example, does not seem the same in both British English and some postcolonial English. The word “furniture” is uncountable in British English, and could occur in utterances like: “a piece of furniture” and “pieces of furniture”.  Some uncountable nouns, however, are used as countable in English written in postcolonial countries as: “luggages, furnitures, accommodations, informations, etc”.

II.3. Hamdan and Fareh (1997)

Quite a large number of foreign learners are obsessed with the idea that if two words are synonyms, they can be used interchangeably in any context whatsoever. Hamdan and Fareh, In their discussion of verb argument structure, have observed that not only is this idea wrong, but also that this misconception may sometimes be inherent in and reinforced by a number of dictionaries. Two sets of verbs have been chosen and scrutinised in terms of their respective VAS (Verb Argument Structures).  Each two verbs are semantically synonymous, but do not share the same argument structure. The following is an illustrative example:

Build can occur in (1)a. and (1)b. below, whereas its generally cited synonym construct can only occur in (2)b.

(1) a. Ali built a grand palace for Salma.

b. Ali built Salma a grand palace.

(2) a. Ali constructed a grand palace for Salma.

b. * Ali constructed Salma a grand palace.”

(Hamdan and Fareh: 1997, 197) “underlines added”

Upon discussing the various problems besetting some monolingual dictionaries, in this specific area, the researchers have recommended that “dictionary compilers consider the provision of some more detailed information on the syntax of verbs” (Hamdan and Fareh: 1997, 215).

II.4. Jackson (1996)

Jackson is of the opinion that a learner’s dictionary should take into account that EFL learners “employ language in two functions: decoding (i.e. listening and reading), and encoding (i.e. speaking and writing)” (Jackson: 1996, 176).  Therefore, if a dictionary is to meet these two needs, it should be keen to include such essential information as context(s) of use and clear definitions of all senses of a word (lexeme) in addition to the appropriate register and field. But first and foremost, Jackson maintains that a learner’s dictionary must provide for “accurate and detailed grammatical information so that correct and natural sentences can be encoded” (Jackson: 1996, 176). To these, he adds collocational information.

If these suggestions, posited by Jackson, are carefully observed, the EFL learner may be able to get rid of his/her native language interference in his speaking or writing in the second language (herein English).

III. Significance of Study

The English learner’s monolingual dictionary is very essential for students of English as a foreign language. It is usually in this dictionary a student learns a word and learns how to idiomatically use it in English. It is therefore important to check how far successful a dictionary is in fulfilling the needs of the learner’s.

A search on the internet revealed many sites giving assessments on learner’s dictionaries (the key words searched for are: “evaluation, assessment, dictionary, dictionaries, learner’s”.  One of these sites is:http://www.geth.demon.co.uk/voc.html. This site however, like other ones found, presents assessment on the use of monolingual learner’s dictionaries based on personal experience only.

An interesting example about groundless evaluations of dictionaries could found at the aforementioned site is an advice by the writers, i.e. Gethin and Gunnemark, saying that “Dictionaries tooare often the great enemies of word-learning”.  Paradoxically, the writers talk about students whose repertoire of vocabulary is poor and are tired of checking the dictionary every now and then while reading. So what is and where is the problem? Is it in the dictionary or in the learner?

This illustration shows how some assessments of dictionaries have either lacked systematicity and authenticity or haven’t been based on solid grounds.

This study therefore fills in the gap by suggesting a systematic and linguistic method of evaluating a learner’s dictionary, something that will benefit both the user and the researcher in this field.

IV. Developing a Heuristic checklist

The following heuristic checklist shows what a learner expects or needs to find in a learner’s dictionary:

1- Semantic Information:

A- Definition by paraphrase (para)

B- Lexical Relations (Synonyms and/or antonyms and/or semantic

field and/or co-hyponyms)

C- Formality and Technicality (formal, informal, slang, colloquial,

and register)

I-Collocations, idioms and fixed expressions

II-Illustrative examples showing the actual grammatical usage of the


2-Grammatical Information:

I-Parts of Speech

II-Verb Argument Structure

III-Classification of a non-verb Lexeme (i.e. countable and uncountable

nouns, gradable, attributive and predicative (Adjectives), etc.)

IV-Grammatical use in sentences

3- Morphological Information:

I-Derivational forms of lexemes

II-Inflectional forms of lexemes

4-Ancillary Information

I-Pronunciation (with special reference to BrE and AE)

II-Variation (Variation of usage or spelling in the various Englishes:  British, American, New-Zealand, Australian, Canadian, etc.)

The above points will be the parameters of examining the chosen lexemes in this study.

V. The Corpus

The corpus incorporated in this study includes twenty six lexemes chosen randomly to represent the English alphabets. They are as follows:

Awning (n), buy(v), cybernetics (n), dwell (v), exult (v), fuse (n), gutter (n), hypochondriac (adj), itinerary (n), justice (n), knot (n), luster (n), muzzle (n), nurture (v), owe (v), pussy (n), quirk (n), ruse (n), syntax (n), typewriter(n), utilize (n), voucher (n), write-up (n), xenophobia (n), your (pro), zigzag(n).

VI. Method

A comparison has been drawn among the chosen incorporated words in terms of the parameters mentioned in V above. A table of these words is appended to this research, providing a comparison between the three dictionaries in question. The different methods have been checked. The symbol 0 signifies the absence of a method, while 1 stands for its presence. The existing methods with respect to each word have been checked and the total amount of these methods for each dictionary has been calculated for statistical purposes.

Each parameter will be defined below. Samples of lexemes will be discussed and compared vis-à-vis the three dictionaries: CCELD, OLDCEand CIDEL.

Our ultimate goal will be to provide insights for producing a new generation of learner’s English dictionaries, i.e. to answer the question posited in the title of paper.

A detailed analysis of the corpus is provided in the appendix of this study.

VII. Limitations of Study

The present study is restricted to the selected lexemes mentioned in V and the heuristic checklist in IV above. Optimal arrangement of entries, pictorial illustrations or computerised versions of the same three dictionaries (i.e. OLDCECIDEL and CCELD) will not be considered in this study. This study is not concerned with word etymology as well. The fact that this research tackles three dictionaries only does not, however, limit its scope of application to other ones.

V. Corpus Analysis and Discussion:

V.1. Semantic Information

V.1.1.  Paraphrase:

Paraphrase is perhaps the most commonly used method of defining a word in a dictionary. It provides a semantic analysis of the word in terms of a number of features as shape, type, manner, constituents, etc. all of which pertain to what the word stands for. Consider, for example the following entry:

Awning n canvas or plastic sheet fixed to a wall above a door or window and stretched out as a protection against rain or sun.

(Sinclair et al, 1990)

Here, paraphrase enables the learner to learn that an awning could be (1) made of canvas or plastic (2) placed above a door or window, or (3)used for protecting the doors or windows from rain.

The table below shows that paraphrase has been used to a considerable degree in the three dictionaries in question:

Table (1)

The Percentage of Using the Paraphrase Method

in the Three Dictionaries

Wd No. 26 26 26
Wd No. Para. 23 25 26
Percentage 88.46% 96.15% 100%

Obviously, CCELD is the only dictionary that makes full utilisation of paraphrase method in word definition. OLDCE follows, and then comesCIDE.

Paraphrase is an effective device, which can be used however in an inefficient way. It is supposed to provide considerable details on the meaning of the word in question. The following is an illustrative review of how the method of paraphrase has been used in the three dictionaries. This review will enable us then to test the efficiency of this method in word definition.

1- Dwell (v)

The way CCELD paraphrases this word is rather poor in comparison with the rest of dictionaries. It states that “if you dwell somewhere, you live there”. Such a definition wouldn’t be sufficient, for the learner is likely to be at a loss in differentiating between dwell and liveOLDCE provides some further information but its paraphrase is still inefficient.  CIDEstates that dwell is associated with ‘a particular way’ but still it does not explain how this word is distinct from live.

1-Exult (v)

The three dictionaries share the meaning of exult as “to show pleasure.” They differ however in explaining the way it is used, as follows:

a- to show great pleasure or happiness esp. “at someone else’sdefeat or failure” (CIDE)

b- you feel and show great happiness and pleasure “because of sometriumph or success you have“. (CCELD)

you speak in a way which indicates how pleased or proud you are of something that has happened. (CCELD)

a-get great pleasure from something; rejoice greatly. (OLDCE )

2- Fuse (n)

CIDE again is more detailed on the matter.  It states that a fuse melts when the “electric current is too high” and so it prevents fire “or other dangers”. CCELD roughly states the same information. OLDCE however is so brief as it does not denote the use of fuse in electrical devices.

3-Hypochondriac (adj.)

CCELD makes use of paraphrase here, while CIDE does not define the word at all. As for OLDCE, it uses a narrow paraphrase in such a way as the learner will be obliged to refer to the noun of this adjective to understand the meaning. This way of definition is tiring and time consuming for the learner who has to refer every now and then to other derivatives in other entries to fully understand the word in question.

4-Itinerary (n.)

This item shows clearly how OLDCE is so concise in its paraphrase of lexeme. The present item is not made clear through paraphrase, a matter that may lead the learner to misunderstand the whole word. This in turn will negatively affect the idiomatic use of the word in question.

CIDE, on the other hand, makes clear the notion of “itinerary” by distinguishing it from “plan”, for an “itinerary” is a “detailed plan”. But still this paraphrase is still rather vague and needs to be more illustrated by means of specifying exactly the very nature and the use of the signified of the word “itinerary”.

CCELD renders a plausible paraphrase of “itinerary” elucidating the nature of the signified meaning.  However, it still lacks some important information, as for instance, the fact that an itinerary is a “detailed plan”.

Other pieces of information not given through paraphrase in the present example are something like:

– a person who uses itinerary is likely to be a tourist or traveler.

– An itinerary is likely to be used when you visit a place that you don’t have an idea about.

5-Justice (n.)

The major difference between the three dictionaries lies in the first sense of the word or the first meaning to be paraphrased. While the legal sense comes first in CIDE, the general sense of the word (referring to fair behavior or treatment) is dominant in the remaining two dictionaries. In this regard, the researcher is of the opinion that the most familiar sense of the word should be stated first. This familiar sense is likely to be the one a learner wants to look up in the dictionary. The most successful dictionary, here, would be CCELD, which seems to have divided the word into senses on a scale of the learners’ familiarity with the word. Each sense is paraphrased precisely giving the learner much information on how use the word in different contexts.

OLDCE starts with the most familiar sense of the word, i.e. “right and fair behaviour”, yet its paraphrase is not so satisfactory as that ofCCELDCIDE begins with the very legal sense of the word, i.e. “the putting of the law into action”.  The other senses are not mentioned here.

6-Knot (n.)

The problem of sense arrangement occurs once again in this item. OLDCE begins with the most familiar sense which is “a fastening made by tying a piece or pieces of string, rope, etc.”, moving downward to the uncommon senses ending with “knot” as a “unit of speed measurement”.  What distinguishes OLDCE from the other dictionaries is the addition of another sense of the word “ornament or decoration made of ribbon, etc twisted and tied”. Paraphrase in this dictionary however is still concise and could hardly let the learner perceive and use the word properly.

CIDE begins with paraphrasing the word in its most common sense, but then it suddenly mentions something related to another sense, i.e. to feel uncomfortable. Despite the inappropriateness of sense arrangement,CIDE seems to give well-constructed and easy-to-understand paraphrase of the senses pertaining to the word in question.

CCELD is more elaborate in its paraphrase of the word “knot”. It specifies that a “knot” may occur not only in ropes and strings, but also in any other material “where one end or part has passed through a loop and been pulled tight”. There seems to be a good arrangement of senses on a scale of familiarity. The most common sense is placed before the less common ones.

7-Nurture (IV.)

CCELD and CIDE are roughly the same in their presentation and definition of the word “nurture”. The problem is with OLDCE, which ignores one of the senses, i.e. “nurturing emotions, ideas, plans, etc.”. Even the senses it provides are not made clear enough, for what do we expect a learner to learn when we tell him that “to nurture” is “to encourage the growth of something, or to nourish something”? How can the learner be sure that he is correctly saying, for example: “They are nurturing their business”?

We notice here that the paraphrase method has been effectively utilised in both CCELD and CIDE.  This is not the case with OLDCE, which does not seem to have successfully used the paraphrase method, which proves to be very important in this example.

8- Syntax (n.)

OLDCE here is the most elaborate one. It precisely mentions that syntax is the “arrangement of words into phrases and phrases into sentences”. Next comes CIDE which does not mention anything about “phrases”.  Finally comes CCELD which pays no attention to “phrases” or “sentences”.

From the above discussion we conclude that paraphrase is an important method that may provide the learner with significant information. It has also been obvious that even an efficient use of paraphrase may not lead to the learner’s full understanding of a word.  This means that such purpose could be realised only when paraphrase goes hands in hands efficiently with other methods.

V.1.2.  Lexical Relations:

Following paraphrase, dictionaries usually resort to some items that share lexical relations with the word under consideration for elucidating purposes. These relations may include references to other words of similar meaning (synonyms), broader meaning (superordinates), opposite meaning (antonyms) or of the same semantic field (hyponyms). Before we begin our analysis, it is important to tackle a problem of using synonyms.  We must not, however, assume that a learner’s dictionary should be involved in telling all possible lexical relations, because this would fall in the domain of a thesaurus rather than a dictionary.

As seen in II.3, Hamdan and Fareh (1997) have shown some reservation against the use of synonyms in illustrating the meaning of a word. Arguing that a dictionary may be a potential source of error, they say that two synonyms may be similar in meaning but differ in their syntactic properties. The researcher, however, believes that this reservation should not address a learner’s dictionaries, but rather dictionaries of synonyms. For illustration, consider the following citation quoted from Webster’s Dictionary of Synonyms (WDS) in connection with the synonyms “Buy” and “Purchase” (that are among the pairs examined by Hamdan and Fareh (1997):

“&.the words [buy and purchase] are often used interchangeablywithout loss&&. buy may almost always be substituted for purchasewithout disadvantage.”

(Webster, 1951:135) emphasis added

If a learner were to follow the above quotation, he would inevitably think that both “buy” and “purchase” enjoy the same syntactic properties.

You can say for instance:

He bought me a house.

But not:

* He purchased me a house.

This misconception may also extend to other pairs of synonyms.

This problem inheres only in dictionaries of synonyms.  As for learner’s dictionaries, synonyms are words through which a sense is made clear by means of mentioning a more common word of similar meaning.  Nevertheless, it is the DUTY of all learners’ dictionaries to point out the question of synonymy in their front matters warning the learner against such misusage of synonyms.

Another point worth mentioning is the fact that a dictionary is not a reference book of syntax. If a dictionary must allude every now and then to the syntactic differences among synonyms, then it is likely going to be anything but a dictionary.

The present study, accordingly, will consider synonyms, antonyms and hyponyms as important advantageous devices for meaning clarification. The following table shows to what extent the three dictionaries observe lexical relations:

Table (2)

The Percentage of Using the Lexical Relations Method

in the Three Dictionaries

Wd. No. 26 26 26
Wd No. Lex. 10 6 19
Percentage 38.46% 23.08% 73.08%

It seems that sense relations have been observed and employed to a considerable degree by CCELD. Following comes CIDE and then OLDCE.  It should be noted, however, that CIDE and OLDCE sometimes provide synonyms implicitly in their paraphrase of words.

As far as CIDE is concerned, a close scrutiny reveals that this dictionary resorts to sense relations, namely synonyms, to serve other purposes than elucidating the meaning of a word (Consider relevant discussion on “Awning” and “Buy” for example.)

1-Awning (n)

Two synonyms and one superordinate are mentioned in CCELD, whileCIDE observes other synonyms “sunshade” and “sunblind”. OLDCE states no synonyms. Although synonyms in this example are not erroneous, the absence of these synonyms may not prevent the learner’s full understanding and consequently use of the word in question, which has been fully explained by paraphrase.

CIDE‘s mentioning of the two synonyms is intended to differentiate between various usages of different varieties of English.  CIDE says here that “Awning” is mainly used in British English, while “sunshade” and “sunblind” are used to express the same meaning in the USA and Australia respectively.

2-Dwell (v)

The paraphrase of “dwell” attempted by CCELD has been insufficient to provide for a good understanding of the same item. A superordinate “reside” is placed to fill in the gap. This is not the case with OLDCE, which implicitly states that “dwell” = “reside” in terms of meaning. It is now obvious that while a dictionary may discern the relationship between two words as synonyms, other ones may consider them as hyponym and superordinate in a semantic field.

3-Exult (v)

CCELD specifies two superordinates: “rejoice” and “say” in addition to two synonyms: “glory” and “crow”. These lexical items are not placed randomly, but in such a way as to the learner some knowledge of lexical relations with the word in each relevant sense. This will enhance the learner’s understanding of the polysemous nature of some words. CIDEshould have resorted to such synonyms to fill in the gap created by a brief paraphrase.

4- Buy (v)

CCELD uses only two synonyms: “purchase” and “gain” in addition to one superordinate “bribe”.  Other synonyms should have been stated such as those observed (implicitly) in OLDCE. In its paraphrase of the word,OLDCE mentions such synonyms as “purchase”, “obtain”, “believe” and “delay”. CIDE, on the other hand, mentions such synonyms as “pay for” and “believe” (referred to by CIDE as GUIDE WORDS) for purposes of entry design. CIDE uses such “guide words” to help the learner find which meaning he wants quickly.

None of the dictionaries has observed the antonym “sell”.

5- Gutter (n)

“Channel” is the only synonym mentioned in CCELDCIDE andOLDCE. Other synonyms could have been given including “cesspool”, “sink”, “drain” and “sump”, but paraphrase is sufficient in explaining this word.

6- Itinerary (n)

The meaning of this item could be grasped without resorting to lexical relations. In this example, we note how synonyms could be used inappropriately. CCELD gives “programme” as a synonym of the subject item, which is totally incorrect. A programme is far distinct in meaning from an itinerary. This will lead us to conclude that an overuse of synonyms could be unhealthy.  A better synonym could be something like “guidebook”, while “programme”, “schedule” and “timetable” could be stated as co-hyponyms.

7- Pussy (n)

“Pussy” in its informal or slang usage refers to the “female genitals”.  There are of course other slang and informal synonyms of the word, none of which is mentioned by any of the three dictionaries. The researcher believes that a dictionary in explaining such an item must provide the more formal or technical synonyms that could be used safely without causing any kind of embarrassment or inconvenience. Such synonyms could be like the more common term “vagina” or the more technical “theca”.

8- Quirk (n)

The synonym “idiosyncrasy” is used by CCELD.  This synonym, however, may be somewhat vague for non-native speakers of English. It is recommended therefore that other synonyms are stated such as”eccentricity, peculiarity, distinctive feature, trademark, mannerism, foible”

V.1.3. Formality and Technicality

A learner must be kept aware of the social attitude of native speakers towards a specific word. Any use of a word in an inappropriate context may lead the learner to an embarrassing situation or may cause him to utter an odd, even awkward, utterance in the foreign language. It is an advantage for a dictionary, therefore, to provide where necessary, in what situation the item could be used, such as in “informal”, “formal”, “frozen” or other situations.  The present study shows that in terms of formality and technicality, CCELD seems to dominate, followed by CIDEand then by OLDCE as shown in the table below:

Table (3)

The Percentage of Using

Formality and Technicality Method in the Three Dictionaries

Wd. No. 26 26 26
Wd. No. Formality 6 6 11
Percentage 23.08% 23.08% 42.31%

The above table tells us that the three dictionaries do not cover all items in terms of formality. Consider for instance the following examples:

-CIDE does not observe as formal the following items:

Fuse, itinerary, owe, ruse, and your

-As for OLDCE, these are:

Dwell, nurture, ruse and syntax

-CCELD ignores the formality of:

Fuse, itinerary, and owe

Consider also the verb “buy”. CIDE seems to be the only one to state that the expression “to buy yourself” is used in the military in British English.

V.1.4. Collocations, Idioms and Fixed Expressions

Recognising the meaning of a word, its lexical relations with other words and its level of formality does not guarantee an idiomatic use of the same word. There is in every language a specific non-systematic way of combining words together. A collocation is simply a habitual co-occurrence of two or more words. For instance, you can say “I go home” but not “I go house“, or “green with jealousy” and not “bluewith jealously“. Also, one can discern the meaning of the collocation through the accumulation of the meanings of its various constituents. Idioms on the other hand are more “fossilised” due to the fact that they are syntactically restricted and that they are rather metaphorical as to the meaning of the whole idiom is not the accumulation of the meanings of its constituents. Consider the following example:

He kicked the bucket. (= He died).

* The bucket was kicked by him.

The outstanding problems and difficulties besetting the lexicographer, in this regard, could be summarised in the following questions:

1- Where should collocations and idioms be extracted from?

2- How could it be tested that the selected collocations and idioms are actual and real utterances said by native speakers of English? How could one be sure that an idiom or collocation one chooses are not mere idiosyncrasies.

3- Are the selected idioms and collocations up-to-date, or have they become obsolete?

A learner may understand the meaning of specific words, but may combine them erroneously, in terms of collocational and idiomatic meaning. Thus, providing some collocations and idioms within the dictionary entry seems to be inescapable.

Collocations and idioms grow with the growth of everyday language and are unlikely to be limited. Thus, they and may not be comprehensively encompassed in the learners’ dictionary. The most commonly used ones, however, should be stated and explained. In the following, we shall try to see how much collocations the three dictionaries provided in this field. The table below shows the percentage of using the method of idioms and collocations in the three dictionaries:

Table (4)

The Percentage of Using

Idioms and Collocations Method in the Three Dictionaries

Wd. No. 26 26 26
Wd. No. CIE. 10 6 5
Percentage 38.46% 23.08% 19.23%

In appendix 2, a table shows how the three dictionaries have provided for collocations and idioms.

V.1.5. Illustrative Examples of Usage

We close our analysis in the semantic domain with illustrative examples of usage, which are perhaps the most important feature a learner’s dictionary must exhibit. A learner may understand the meaning of a word through paraphrase, yet he may be unable to use it correctly and appropriately.  A review of the most recent English-English learner’s dictionaries would tell us that the current trend is towards using authentic illustrative examples of actual use by native speakers of English. The following table shows the extent to which the three dictionaries have used this method:

Table (5)

The Percentage of Using

the Illustrative Examples Method in the Three Dictionaries

NW 26 26 26
NWI[1] 25 18 26
Percentage 96.15% 69.23% 100%

Once again, we have to consider an important question: do the three dictionaries use the method of illustrative examples to the optimal degree? Or in other words, is this method efficiently utilised?

In order for an illustrative example to function efficiently, it should (among other things):

1-be actually said by a native speaker (it should not be the lexicographer’s own invention)

2-provide the user with some basic syntactic characteristics of the word.

3-provide the user with some basic semantic characteristics of the word (collocations, idioms, etc)

4-Social Use

Syntactic properties include questions on transitivity, word order, countability, gradability etc. This information has been on the whole provided in examples by the three dictionaries.

Take for instance the following examples:

1- Buy (v)

– Let me buy you a drink (CCELD) è “buy” + Oi + Od

– Money can’t buy happiness (OLDCE ) è “buy” + Od

Notice also the following self-explanatory example given by CIDE:

– He bought his mother some flowers/ He bought some flowers to his mother.

2- Cybernetics (n)

CCELD is the only dictionary here that illustrates the use of the word. This use, however, seems to be a luxury. “The world of cybernetics” or “the cybernetics department” are unlikely to add to our knowledge of the word in terms of its syntactic or semantic properties. For that reason, it seems that CCELD and OLDCE have preferred not to give any example.

3- Dwell (v)

There are three examples in CIDE, and one in each of COBUILD andOLDCE.  CIDE stresses two important uses of the verb “dwell”, so we can say: “dwell in + Place” or “Dwell with + Someone”.

4- Exult (v)

Examples have been given in each dictionary illustrating how to use the word with ‘in/at’. CIDE, however, adds ‘exult over’.

5- Owe (v)


–            We owe you our thanks / We owe our thanks to you (CIDE)

– I owe my parents an enormous amount / I owe an enormous amount to my parents. (CIDE)

One way of examining the efficiency in using the illustrative examples methods is by answering the following question: How many idioms and expressions or collocations have I learnt from the examples provided in the three dictionaries? The answer is illustrated through the following table:

Table (6)

The Efficiency of the Illustrative Examples Method

NW 26 26 26
Collocations 51 30 45
Idioms 14 7 19
Col + Idioms 65 37 64

The above table tells us that CCELD and CIDE are more useful thanOLDCE on terms of illustrative examples efficiency. It is worth mentioning that OLDCE seems to be focusing, in an unjustifiable manner, and relying on condensed examples and phrases rather than clauses or complete sentences.

III.2 Grammatical Information

One of the main properties that distinguish a learner’s dictionary is that grammatical information is more detailed than an ordinary dictionary. Part of speech, for instance, could be said to be ancillary in any dictionary but the learner’s. Take the following example:

In Arabic, to use the word “tanakkara” is used as an intransitive verb, while in English the counterpart of this word is usually transitive:

– tanakkara al-rajulu bithiyabi shurti

(English version: The man disguised himself as a policeman.)

Should a learner’s dictionary be oblivious to this fact, it would be more amenable to causing perplexity and language interference problems in the use of words by a non-native speaker.

It is interesting to note that CIDE disperses many syntactic rules and grammatical information, not only within word entries, but also in the course of its body. After explaining the word “compare”, for example,CIDE draws a frame in which the concept of comparing and grading is explained and discussed elaborately.

In the ensuing sections of this part, we shall look into three basic elements of grammatical properties of words, i.e. the part of speech, verb argument structure and classification of lexemes (other than verbs).

Grammatical information is restricted in this paper to: part of speech, verb argument structure and grammatical classification of non-verbs.

V.2.1 Part of Speech

The part of speech has been fully observed by the three dictionaries with respect to all words of the present corpus.  CCELD, however, has an advantage over the other two dictionaries for its clear labeling of the part of speech. All labels referring to nouns, adjectives, verbs, etc. are placed on the left margin with respect to each sense of the word, so these labels are easy to notice and easy to understand.  The other two dictionaries have preferred to place the label directly after the pronunciation or the sense of the word.

V.2.2 Verb Argument Structure

The most detailed grammatical information in a learner’s dictionary is that given to verbs since:

“verb syntax is essentially the syntax of the clause, and it is where there are probably more differences between languages.  The verb lexeme in a clause determines the potential occurrence of the other elements in the clause.”

(Jackson, 1996:180)

Of the twenty six words of the corpus, only six words are verbs.  These are: buy, dwell, exult, nurture, owe and utilise.  Other words of the corpus that could be used as nouns are excluded, simply because they have been randomly chosen as non-verbs.

As we have mentioned earlier, grammatical properties, including verb argument structure, are clearer in CCELD than the other two dictionaries. Not all the selected verbs are covered in terms of their arguments. Consider the following table:

Table (7)

Verb Argument Structure

No. of Verbs 6 6 6
Wd. No. explaining VAS 5 6 6
Percentage 83.33% 100% 100%

The verb ‘buy’ is excluded form the verb argument structure analysis.

1-Dwell (v)

CCELD states that “dwell” is followed by an adverbial, but the illustrative example is a bit “syntactically” perplexing. The problem is with the word “somewhere”, for this may impede a learner’s interpreting of the word. After reading the definition of the word, an Arab EFL learner has produced the following sentence ‘which is totally erroneous’:

He has dwelt Amman.

S V ‘somewhere’

OLDCE, on the other hand, does not state that ‘dwell’ could occur in an NP-VP-PP structure, through it does say that ‘dwell’ is intransitive.

The problem is resolved in CIDE, which states that ‘dwell’ is a verb that is ‘always’ followed by an adverb or preposition. Two illustrative examples are given to show how the word is used with the prepositions ‘in’ and ‘with’.

The word ‘dwell’ should have been syntactically defined as: int., V+A/PP.

2-Exult (v)

The syntactic information regarding ‘exult’ is made implicit, through illustrative examples, in CIDE and in OLDCE, the latter of which provides some vague symbols like ‘I, Ipr, It’. Although illustrative examples help us understand the syntactic properties of the word in CIDE and OLDCE, these properties seem to be much clearer in CCELD. Consider the following syntactic features of ‘exult’ as mentioned in CCELD:

a-The first sense of ‘exult’ is usually used with an adverb

b-The second sense of “exult” is used after a quotation

c-The third sense of ‘exult’ is usually used with an adverb

3- Nurture (v)

There is nothing remarkable concerning the syntactic properties of this word, as the three dictionaries mention that it is transitive and takes an object.

1-Owe (v)

CIDE states that the word is stative and cannot be used in the progressive tense as to say: “is owing”. This has been indicated by the mentioning of: ‘[T not be owing]. CCELD however is more elaborate and clear in terms of the syntactic features of the different senses when specifying the following arguments:

a. V+O b. V+O+O c. V+O+A (to) d. V+O+O

e. V+O+O f. V+O+A+ (to)

OLDCE is still vague in its representation as it provides mere symbols lacking illustration, which is not a good feature of a learner’s dictionary.

2-Utilise (v)

Nothing of much importance could be said regarding this word, as the three dictionaries state that the word is transitive, and provide illustrative examples.

It seems, however, that none of the three dictionaries have indicated whether a verb is stative (cannot occur in the progressive) or dynamic (can occur in the progressive).

V.2.3 Classification of Non-verb Lexemes

Here, we talk about noun countability and adjective gradability. These two features should be observed in learner’s dictionaries, because of the lack of a one-to-one correspondence among words of different languages in this regard.

Beside verbs, the twenty-six-word corpus incorporates twenty nouns and adjectives.  By observing the countability of noun, a learner becomes sure that he may derive a plural of this noun, or use an indefinite article before it. Gradability, on the other hand, would inform us if we can derive the comparative and superlative forms by adding ‘-er’ and ‘est’ respectively, or pre-modifying it by “very”. The three dictionaries, once again, differ in using this method. The following table is illustrative:

Table (8)

Classification of Lexemes (Other than Verbs)

Total No. 20 20 20
Feature Used 13 8 14
Percentage 65% 40% 70%

CCELD, therefore, makes more use of the classification feature. The opposite is true for OLDCE, which does not seem to rely to a large degree on countability and gradability.

As for adjectives, Quirk et al (1972) observe that:

“adjectives are distinguished positively by their ability to function attributively and/or their ability to function predicatively after intensive verbs, including ‘seem’ “

(Quirk et al. 1972: 234)

Two adjectives appear in the corpus, namely “hypochondriac” and “xenophobic”.  None of the three dictionaries provide an explicit explanation on the correct use of these adjectives (i.e. in terms of attributivity and predicativity).  CCELD and CIDE at least illustrate through examples how these adjectives are used predicatively.  OLDCEis short on this specific point.

The three dictionaries, on the whole, are not satisfactory when it comes to specifying the kinds of adjectives.

CIDE, however, is (grammatically speaking) distinguished from the other two dictionaries with an important and significant feature. It does provide every now and then grammatical and syntactic information that would be of great assistance to the learner. Check the said dictionary and consider, for instance, the front matter (pages xiii-xviii).  It includes brief but simple and easy-to-grasp information on word classes: their forms and functions.

V.3. Morphological Information

Morphology deals with the internal structure of words in terms of their derivations and inflections. The question that arises in this study regarding morphological investigation is: does a dictionary provide the learner with the derivations and inflections of a word?

Table (9) below shows how CCELD has been keen in providing all possible morphological information of the word within the same entry. This does not seem the case with CIDE and OLDCE.

Table (9)

Morphological Information (Derivation and Inflection)

Total of Words 26 26 26
Derivation 10 9 7
Inflection 3 4 12
Total 13 13 19
Percentage 50% 50% 73.08%

Examples form CCELD are: ‘awnings’ for ‘awning”, ‘bought’ for ‘buy’, ‘exulting’ for exult’, etc. An example for CIDE is: ‘itinerarition’ for ‘itinerary’. As for OLDCE , an example is ‘lustrously’ for ‘lustre’.

V.4. Ancillary Information

It is true that paraphrase is perhaps the most important part of the definition of a word, but it is also a fact that in most dictionaries, lexicographers tend to provide some additional ancillary information. Such ancillary information may provide the learner with a further degree of knowledge concerning the word in question. These pieces of information are ancillary, as they may be omitted altogether from the entry without affecting the learner’s understanding of the word.

A problem, however, may arise on the surface if we take into account the diversity of learners’ levels of education. A beginner, for instance, may find every single detail important for learning the word, while an advanced learner may find a lot of methods in dictionaries nothing but a luxury, that he can do without.

Ancillary information may include regional dialects, pronunciations, variations of usage, formality and technicality etc. For the purposes of the present study, ancillary information will be restricted to pronunciation and variation of usage.

V.4.1 Pronunciation

With regard to the British pronunciation, all words of the corpus have been observed in CCELD and CIDE. As for OLDCE, it ignores one single word only, that is ‘xenophobic’.

Beside the British pronunciation, CIDE provides for American and Australian pronunciations where applicable. Examples are: ‘awning’, ‘cybernetics’, ‘gutter’, ‘quirk’, etc.

CCELD observes the British pronunciation only, simply because it states that the dictionary is directed for those who are mainly interested in learning British English.

The three dictionaries use the same standard phonetic symbols.

V.4.2 Variation of Usage

It has been stated above in II.1 that American English and British English may differ in using the same word semantically and syntactically.  It has also been stated that a good learner’s dictionary may have to mention these differences of usage.  The term ‘variation of usage’ will be used here to refer to either of the following two notions: (1) variation in spelling, and (2) syntactic and/or semantic variation in usage.

Table (10):

Variation of Usage

Total of Words 26 26 26
Wd. No. VAR 8 3 2
Percentage 30.77% 11.54% 7.69%

In this arena CIDE, dominates. 30.77% of the total words in the corpus have been observed in terms of variation of usage among British English, American English and Australian English. Consider the following for examples pertaining to the present analysis:

1-Awning (n)

CIDE draws the attention of the learner that this word is mainly used in British English, while other synonyms are used to refer to the same meaning in Australian English “sunshade” and Australian English “sunblind”. English and American pronunciations are provided.

2- Buy (v)

CIDE observes that the following expressions, that involve the verb ‘buy’ are used only in British English:

– We bought in (=bought for future use)

– You buy yourself (=you pay a sum of money so that you can leave earlier)

It also observes the following expression as used in informal American English:

You buy the farm (you die)

3-Fuse (n)

CCELD states one of the senses of the form as used in informal English. CIDE, however, observes the following usage:

The fuse has gonehas broken (British and Australian English) (The neutral expression is “The fuse has blown”)

4-Justice (n)

Consider the following usages observed by CIDE and CCELD:

– ‘Justice’ is a judge (American English)

– ‘Justice’ as a part of a title of a judge (British English) [CIDE adds that it is also used as such in Australian English)

– ‘Justice of the peace’ (American English as CIDE specifies)

Of the three dictionaries, OLDCE does not seem to give much consideration to this method.

VI. Conclusion and Recommendations:

VI.I. Conclusion:

This study has been concerned with three dictionaries: Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current EnglishCollins Cobuild English Language Dictionary and Cambridge International Dictionary of English. A set of methods has been set up in the form of a heuristicchecklist and twenty six words have been randomly chosen to form the corpus of the study. The corpus has been examined with respect to three major domains: Semantic Component, Grammatical Information and Ancillary Information. The findings have been organised and provided in the appendices of this study.

The findings of the present piece of research have proved useful in evaluating how much the learner learns in consulting any of the three dictionaries named above. In other words, the ultimate goal of our discussion is to arrive at a point where we can understand whether the learner’s knowledge with respect to a word has been enhanced or not. Following is an overall analysis and evaluation of the three dictionaries:

1-Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English

OLDCE has proved to be somehow insufficient and inefficient in the three domains of the heuristicchecklist. Paraphrase is rather concise, illustrative examples are limited and restricted to fragments and phrases instead of clauses and sentences. Lexical relations are also rare (23.08%).  There are, however, a few examples illustrating the use of words, though these examples are in the form of fragments and phrases rather than full sentences or clauses. These illustrative examples are also poor in collocations and fixed expressions.

In the syntactic standpoint, OLDCE pays attention to all verbs of the corpus in terms of their argument structures. This is a good advantage, yet OLDCE needs to revise the nature and positions of symbols in this regard. These symbols have proved to be difficult to understand by the learner, and should be placed on the margin of every sense so they can be clearly and easily identified. ‘Stative” and “Dynamic’ labels should also be taken into account.

OLDCE still needs to further its presentation in terms of noun countability and adjective classification (gradable and non-gradable, attributive or predicative).

It is optional for OLDCE to enter the variation of usage in international English as a new feature or method of defining a word. Also, it is not obligatory for it to display the pronunciations of British English and American English simultaneously.

2-Collins Cobuild English Language Dictionary

On the semantic level, this dictionary has been satisfactory in providing a good paraphrase of words, lexical relations including synonyms, antonyms and superordinates. Formality and technicality have been observed in 42.31% of the words, but what gives CCELD advantage over other dictionaries is its use of illustrative examples with respect to all the twenty six words of the corpus. CCELD has passed the efficiency test we have previously posited for examining this use against the question: “How much do these illustrative examples provide for collocations and idioms?” The result is amusing, 64 collocations and expressions could be learnt from the twenty six words definitions.

On the syntactic level, CCELD has been keen in providing all argument structures of each single sense of the 6 verbs incorporated in the corpus. Noun countability has been fully observed, but the dictionary needs to specify explicitly the gradability of adjectives. The illustrative examples should be reviewed in a manner that they would contain much syntactic information of the word when it comes in a clause or a sentence.

CCELD has well observed, as well, the derivational and inflectional forms of the majority of words concerned. CELD states its main interest in the introductory as the target learner of British English. In view of this, it would not be obligatory that CCELD observes the variations of spelling, pronunciation and lexical usage among the various English varieties. It has however, in some cases, provided for information on specific expressions used only by the American English speakers.

3- Cambridge International Dictionary of English

The dictionary on the whole is interesting and satisfactory, with some reservations on the style of presentation. CIDE, nevertheless, is characterised by the organisation of its word-senses and labeling each sense with a “Guide Word” that facilitate the process of looking up a word. Syntactic information and rules are also made available in the front matter as well as in the body (where appropriate).  Illustrative examples are also efficiently utilised.  These provide the learner with some syntactic and semantic features of the word concerned. Collocations, idioms and expressions exist. CIDE, moreover, has the following unique features:

1- It pays attention to the pronunciations of other varieties of English, such as American English and Australian English in addition to British English.

2-It warns the learner of using false friends. This will help reduce the interference of the learner’s mother tongue in his learning of English.

3-It keeps the learner aware of the semantic differences in using words by various English varieties. An example has been noted in the above discussion, when CIDE states that while British English uses ‘awning’, American English uses ‘sunshade’ and Australian English uses ‘sunblind’ to refer to the same meaning.

CIDE is on the whole presentable, meaning that is comfortable to use, yet it needs a re-arrangement of its symbols regarding the verb argument structure features and other ones pertaining to other classes of words such as adjectives, nouns, prepositions, etc.

VI.2. Recommendations

“What should a learner’s dictionary include?” This question, the title of the paper, should be answered by both the learner and the lexicographer. On the one hand, the learner should define his needs and know exactly whether a dictionary he has bought fulfills his needs in learning a foreign language. On the other hand, the lexicographer should be aware of the real needs in all the fields according to the heuristic checklist devised in this paper.

We recommend also that further studies touch on some areas not covered in this paper such as: overall presentation, cultural information necessary for understanding a word or one of its senses, word etymology, false friends, computerized versions of learner’s dictionaries.

The learner’s dictionary is in fact not a book of syntax or morphology, i.e. such pieces of information should not be very elaborate in the dictionary, but it should be satisfactory when the learner learns a word or one of its senses.

As far as ancillary information is concerned, it is recommended that a dictionary provides such information as: tables that shows frequency of words, irregular verbs, colors and words ending with certain suffixes like -logy, -ism, etc.


1- Allee, John. 1951. Webster’s Dictionary of Synonyms. G. & C. Meriam Co. Publishers, USA.

2- Ahulu, S. 1998. Grammatical Variation in International English.English Today, 14(4): 13-18. Cambridge. Cambridge University Press.

3- Bobda, A. 1998. British or American English: Does it matter?. English Today, 14(4): 13-18, Cambridge. Cambridge University Press.

4- Cowise, Anthony (ed.). 1995. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English. Oxford. Oxford University Press.

5- Hamdan J. and Fareh, S.1997. “Dictionaries as a potential Source of Error for Arab EFL Learners: Evidence from verb Argument Structures”Studia Anglica Posaniensia, XXXII, pp. 21-41

6- Jackson, H. 1996. Words and Their Meanings. London. Longman

7- Loughridge, B. 1990. Which Dictionary?. London. Library Association Publishing Ltd.

8- Procter et al. 1997. (low-price edition), Cambridge International Dictionary of English. Cambridge. Cambridge University Press, UK.

9- Quirk, R. Greenbaum, S. Leech, G. and Svartvik, J. 1972. A Grammar of Contemporary English. London. Longman

10- Sinclair, J. et al. 1997 (reprinted edition). Collins Cobuild Dictionary of Idioms, Williams Collins Sons & Co. Ltd., UK

11- Sinclair, J. et. al. 1990. Collins Cobuild English Language Dictionary. London. Williams Collins Sons & Co. Ltd.

Online References:

1- Abu-S’Eleek, Ali. The Syntactic Consequences of Differences in American and British English Usage in Longman Dictionary of English Language And Culture. Retrieved from: http://alifarhan11.tripod.com/1.htmon January 1, 2001

2- Gethin, A. and Gunnenmark, Erik. Learning Vocabulary1. Retrieved from: http://www.geth.demon.co.uk/voc.html

3- Meho, LokmanDICTIONARIES: Outline of Significant Points.Retrieved from: http://www.albany.edu/~meho/isp605/dictionaries.html 4- Szynalski, Tomasz and Wojcik, Michal. Review of the Collins COBUILD English Dictionary for Advanced Learners Retrieved from:http://www.antimoon.com/how/cobuild-review.htm on January 20, 2003

[1]Number of Words using the Illustrative Examples Method

Appendix 1: Idioms that can be learnt from each dictionary under study

Buy (v) 1- buy yourself out

2- buy the farm

3- buy it1- the amount a certain sum of money buys.

2- buy freedom

3- I’ll buy that

4- buy someone1- he can’t be bought

2- buy a pig in a poke

3- to buy timeFuse (n)1- the fuse has blown

2- the fuse has gone

3- the fuse has broken

4- to blow a fuse

5- to lit the fuse

6- to light the fuse/1- on a short fuseGutter (n)1- the gutter press//Justice (n)1- a miscarriage of justice

2- to bring someone to justice

3- to obstruct the course of justice

4- justice of the peace1- (he) brought to justice

2- do justice to someone

3- do yourself a justice1- a miscarriage of justice

2- bring somebody to justice

3- do oneself justice

4- do justice to somebody /something

5- justice of the peaceKnot (n)1- to tie a knot in the rope

2- my stomach was in knots

3- knot of people1- to be tied up in knots

2- a knot of people

3- a knot in the stomach

4- at a rate of knots1- cut the Gordian knot

2- tie somebody / oneself in knots

3- tie the knot

4- at a rate of knotsNurture (v)1- to nurture talent1- nurture plans, ideas or people

2- to nurture an emotion/Owe (v)1- to owe thanks to

2- I owe you one

3- to owe someone a living

4- the world owes him a living1- to owe someone something

2- to owe someone a living1- owe something to someone

2- the world owes one a livingPussy (n)1- to get himself a pussy//Quirk (n)1- by some strange quirk

2- an odd quirk of fate/1- by a quirk of fateZigzag (n)1- in zigzags//


N= Not provided
CO. = collocation
FX= fixed expressions or idioms
Awning (n) N N N
Buy (v) – to buy her silence

– I’m afraid Pat’s bought the farm this time.

– To buy the guard

– To buy time

– &.buy the story (believe in)

– He was going to buy it sooner or later (to be killed)- buy freedom

– things that it buys

– to buy someone

– I’ll buy that

– He’ll never buy it-The best education that money could buy

– the victory was dearly bought.

– To buy an excuse

– To buy time

-Cybernetics(n)NNNDwell (v)Dwell in

Dwell withDwell somewhereNExult (v)Exult in / at / over

“……”, he exultedExult at

“……”, he exulted

Exult inExult at

Exult inFuse (n)A thirteen-amp fuse

The fuse has blown

The fuse has gone

Light/ lit the fuseMend the fuse

Has the fuse blown then/

There’s been a fuseA four-hour fuseGutter (n)The gutterDirty gutters, the little gutter girl, have gone to the gutterThe gutterHypochondriac (adj.)Certain hypochondriac tendencyNNItinerary (n)Fix their own itinerary

Change their announced itineraryA luxurious itineraryNJustice (n)The system of justice

Miscarriage of justice

To bring to justice

Obstructing (the course) of justice

The Supreme Court Justice

Mr. Justice EllisA sense of justice

Economic justice

System of justice

Administration of justice

Justice will come your way

Bring to justice

They did justice to him

I can do it justice

Supreme Court Justice

Mr. Justice DillonSocial justice

With some justice

Mr. Justice Smith

To do himself justice

Full justice to

-Since we’d already eaten, we couldn’t do justice to her cooking (i.e. could not eat all the food she had cooked)Knot (n)Tie a knot in the rope

My stomach was in knots

Knots of anxious peopleTied a crude knot

The knot of her headscarf hung beneath her head.

A tight knot of bodies

Constant knots of sightseers

She was tied up in knots

He could tie himself up in knots over the simplest thing

Knots of tension

At a rate of knotsNLustre (n)Restore the lost lustre to your car.

A rich lustre

# He loved the curve of her cheek, the brightness of her eyes and the lustre of her hair.

Add lustre toThe extraordinary lustre of her eyes

Lustre of encrusted gold

The tarnished lustre of his nameThe deep lustre of pearls

Add lustre to one’s nameMuzzle (n)NNNNurture (v)Nurture children

Nurture young talent

Nurture democracy

Nurture ambitionsNurture children

Nurture plants

Nurture the land

Nurture a project

Nurture personnel

Nurture passionNurture children

Nurture a project

Nurture plansOwe (v)He owed so much money

I owe him $10.00

We owe you our thanks/ we owe our thanks to you

You owe me an explanation

The world owes him a living

You owe it to yourself to ask the children to leave home.

I owe my success to my education

He owes his life to the staffYou owe me a fiver

He owed me a hundred and eighty pounds

She owed her method to his teaching

We owe you our thanks

He owes me an explanation

The world owes her a livingHe owes his success to luck

Owe loyalty to a political party

I owe my parents a great deal

I owe a lot to my wifePussy (n)He is a pussy-cat

He wanted to get himself a pussyNNQuirk (n)Quirks and foibles

A quirk in the rules

By some strange quirk of fate

By an odd quirk of fateLittle quirks and oddities

By a quirk of fate

Atmospheric quirksOdd historical quirks

By a quirk of fateRuse (n)NHis ruse has failedThink up a ruse

My ruse has failedSyntax (n)NNNTypewriter (n)Electric typewriterNTypewriter ribbonUtilise (v)Utilise earlier researchNUtilise solar powerVoucher (n)A voucher systemTen-pound-gift voucher

Pay voucher

Meal voucherGift voucher

Special discount voucher

Luncheon voucherWrite-up (n)Favorable write-upTerrific write-upEnthusiastic write-upXenophobic (adj.)A xenophobic mistrust

Xenophobic violenceA curiously xenophobic attitudeNYour (pro.)It’s non of your businessWhat’s your name?

You saw it with your own eyes

Your Majesty, Your LordshipYou and your bright ideas!

Your Majesty,

Your ExcellencyZigzag (n)A series of zigzags

In a zigzag

In zigzags

A zigzag course

A zigzag path

A dress with a zigzag pattern / a pattern of zigzags on it

A zigzag road

A zigzag coastlineA flash and a zigzag

A zigzag way

Zigzag fashionZigzag road

Zigzag course

Zigzag flash of lighting


Appendix 3: Table summarising the results of study


-Semantic Component- Gramma-
tical Informa-
gical Informa-
Ancillary Information
Item Para Lexi FT CIE IlEx PS CL VAS DF IF BrP AmP Var DIC T1
Awning 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 Cambr. 7
Awning 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Oxford 3
Awning 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 Cobuild 7
Buy 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 Cambr. 11
Buy 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 Oxford 9
Buy 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 Cobuild 10
Cyberne-tics 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 Cambr. 6
Cyberne-tics 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 Oxford 6
Cyberne-tics 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 Cobuild 6
Dwell (v) 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 Cambr. 7
Dwell (v) 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 Oxford 7
Dwell (v) 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 Cobuild 8
Exult (v) 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Cambr. 4
Exult (v) 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 Oxford 7
Exult (v) 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 Cobuild 9
Fuse (n) 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Cambr. 9
Fuse (n) 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 Oxford 7
Fuse (n) 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 Cobuild 9
Gutter 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 Cambr. 9
Gutter 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 Oxford 5
Gutter 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 Cobuild 6
Hypochon-driac 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 Cambr. 6
Hypochon-driac 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 Oxford 5
Hypochon-driac 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 Cobuild 5
Itinerary 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 Cambr. 7
Itinerary 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 Oxford 7
Itinerary 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 Cobuild 7
Justice 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Cambr. 9
Justice 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 Oxford 6
Justice 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Cobuild 9
Knot (n) 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 Cambr. 9
Knot (n) 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 Oxford 8
Knot (n) 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 Cobuild 9
Luster 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 Cambr. 7
Luster 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 Oxford 5
Luster 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 Cobuild 6
Nurture (v) 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 Cambr. 8
Nurture (v) 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 Oxford 5
Nurture (v) 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 Cobuild 9
Owe 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 Cambr. 10
Owe 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 Oxford 6
Owe 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 Cobuild 8
Pussy (n) 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Cambr. 6
Pussy (n) 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Oxford 5
Pussy (n) 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 Cobuild 6
Quirk 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 Cambr. 9
Quirk 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Oxford 6
Quirk 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 Cobuild 8
Ruse 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 Cambr. 5
Ruse 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Oxford 5
Ruse 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 Cobuild 7
Syntax 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 Cambr. 7
Syntax 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 Oxford 6
Syntax 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 Cobuild 7
Typewriter 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 Cambr. 5
Typewriter 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Oxford 4
Typewriter 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 Cobuild 5
Utilise 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 Cambr. 10
Utilise 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 Oxford 7
Utilise 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 Cobuild 7
Voucher 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 Cambr. 7
Voucher 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 Oxford 5
Voucher 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 Cobuild 5
Write-up 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 Cambr. 6
Write-up 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Oxford 4
Write-up 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 Cobuild 5
Xeno-phobic 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 Cambr. 5
Xeno-phobic 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Oxford 1
Xeno-phobic 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Cobuild 5
Your 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 Cambr. 5
Your 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 Oxford 6
Your 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Cobuild 5
Zigzag 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 Cambr. 6
Zigzag 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 Oxford 3
Zigzag 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 Cobuild 5
Muzzle (n) 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 Cambr. 5
Muzzle (n) 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 Oxford 5
Muzzle (n) 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 Cobuild 6
TOTAL (2) 26 10 6 10 25 26 13 5 10 3 26 15 8 CIDE
TOTAL (2) 25 6 6 6 18 26 8 6 9 4 25 1 3 OLDCE
TOTAL (2) 26 19 11 5 26 26 14 6 7 12 26 0 2 CCELD

TOTAL 3 = Semantic information + Grammatical information + morphological information + ancillary information


1- CIDE181


2- OLDCE142


3- CCELD185


Par= Paraphrase, Lexi= Lexical relations, FT= Formality and register, CIE= Collocations, Idioms and Fixed Expressions, PS= Part of Speech, CL= Classification of Lexemes, VAS= Verb Argument Structure, DF= Derivational Forms, IF= Inflectional Forms, BrP= British Pronunciation, AmP= American Pronunciation, DIC= Dictionary, Var= Variation of usage,T= Total.

·      Lexical relations = synonyms, antonyms, hyponyms etc

·      Formality and register = formal, informal, slang, colloquial, vulgar, scientific, literary, medical etc.

·      Classification of Lexemes: attributive or predicative or gradable (adjective), countable or uncountable (nouns), etc.

·      Verb Argument Structure transitive, intransitive, ditransitive etc.

·      Variation of usage = variation according to country as Britain, USA, Australia, etc, Variation in spelling.

This article was originally published in Zarka Journal for Studies and Research, vol.5, No.1, 2003
كلمات خاصة بمحركات البحث: دورة الترجمة الصحفية دورة الترجمة القانونية دورة الترجمة التتابعية دورة الترجمة التحريرية دورة الترجمة الفورية دورة الترجمة العامة دورة الترجمة المتخصصة دورة الترجمة الآلية دورة الترجمة الإدارية دورة الترجمة الاقتصادية دورة الترجمة الأدبية دورة الترجمة العلمية دورة الترجمة الإنسانية دورة الترجمة دورة الترجمة المحاسبية دورة الترجمة الدينية

Norm of Interpretation and Norm of Interaction

Norm of Interaction and Norm of Interpretation

across Language Communities and their Effects on Translation


I wish to extend my sincere thanks and gratitude to Mr. Derek Brown from the Guardian Unlimited for his invaluable help and support in answering a questionnaire that was of great significance in the development of this paper.

1.         The aim of this paper is to investigate, with the translator in mind, the significance of two main elements in Sa’Adeddin’s ethnolinguistic heuristic checklist throughout relevant discussion on a number of examples taken from a variety of sorceress.  Restricted to EnglishóArabic translation, the investigation aims at shedding light on the importance of the norms of interaction and interpretation in the following areas:

1- efficient reading and teaching students how to read

2- transferring ideas from one language into another

3- and, evaluating a suggested translation of a given text.

To begin I would like to cite the following interesting sequence of verses from the Holy Quran, the interpretation of which will guide us till the last word of this paper:

اقرأ باسم ربك الذي خلق. خلق الانسان من علق. اقرأ وربك الاكرم. الذي علم بالقلم. علم الانسان ما لم يعلم”

In fact this utterance makes up the first verses revealed by God unto His prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon Him).  Once, I was contemplating on these verses, when at a sudden two stunning queries crossed my mind:

1- Why did God ask the illiterate Messenger (PBUH) to read?

2- Why did God mention “reading” before “writing”?  This is indicated by the position of the word اقرأ which came before the phrase الذي علم بالقلم which means “writing”.

In other words, why does God ask an illiterate person to read?  Why doesn’t God begin the verses with something like: “I have written something for you to read”?  In fact, later on, God told His Messenger (PBUH): انا سنلقي عليك قولا ثقيلا, meaning that the Messenger was asked to read something which was not given to him at the time of the first revelation.

As a restatement, perhaps it would be fair enough to say that once receives knowledge by reading something which has been already written.  You do not usually ask a person to read something which is not written at all.  But the above verses indicate without any doubt that knowledge does not necessarily lie in a text.  Rather, it could lie in the ‘reader’ himself.

Perhaps the idea is still vague, right?  Ok let us question the following idea which I think is taken as axiomatic for a lot of people:

If you want to receive knowledge, you read a text in a paper.  This means that knowledge exists in that same piece of paper you are reading. Right?


In this paper, I will try to show how half the knowledge you are seeking exists in you as a reader even before the text in question has been written.  I want also to argue that this is why God used the word “read” before telling anything about the material to be read.

2.         What is meant by the norms of interpretation and interaction?  To answer this question and to make it much more understood, I need first to survey some relevant theories of translation.

The study of translation theory is brief in comparison with other fields of linguistic studies such as syntax and morphology.  Early studies in the translation theory talked about two kinds of translation: literal vs. free.  Salah Al-Din Al-Safadi was in favor of free translation, which according to him was the only way to preserve ‘meaning’ in the target language.

But what is the meaning of  ‘meaning’? It was always easy to say that a good translation needs to preserve the meaning of the source text, but a review of related literature in such fields as semantic, pragmatics and translation studies would no doubt reveal that no satisfactory definition of the  word “meaning” has been given.

I hope you will be patient with me as you read the lines below, a survey of some relevant views on how meaning should be approached, before you arrive at the heart of this paper, i.e. the norm of interaction and that of interpretation.

3.         Peter Newark rejected the literal-free dichotomy saying that if a literal translation perseveres the pragmatic meaning of a given text, then literal translation is not only the best way but the only way.  What concerns me the most here, is the phrase ‘pragmatic meaning”.  According to this phrase, there are types of meaning.  It logically follows that a translator should make sure that his translation would preserve all ‘types’ of meaning intended by the source text.

But still we do not know how to identify these types of meaning nor how to approach meaning in a given text.

4.         Eugene Nida has achieved a remarkable stride in this field.  For the first time in translation studies, our attention in translating was shifted by Nida from the way to translate into the effect of what we translate.  The sterile debate of literal-versus-free has now come to an end.  Here, meaning lies in the ‘intended effect’ of a given text.  Consider the following pair:

a- Her face is as white as snow.

b. Her face is as white as cotton.

The effect of sentence (a) is to let the reader understand how ‘white’ the woman’s face is.  This intended effect can only be rendered as in (b) if the target readership of the translated material has never seen snow.

The above example would for sure tell us now how the haphazardly formed dichotomy of ‘literal-vs-free being constrained by the intended effect.  In other words, the intended effect tells a translator the degree of latitude he can have in translating a piece of paper.

5.         From a pragmatic point of view, meaning lies in the illocutionary act that a stretch of words performs.  Consider the following example:

“I will tell your father.”

To translate the above, one should understand the illocutionary act that accompanies the utterance.  Is it a promise, a threat or a sudden decision?  So meaning here is the force that accompanies a stretch of words.

A pragmatic approach therefore to a given text usually stresses the intentionally behind using an utterance.  Yes, for pragmatics, meaning lies not in the aggregate meaning of given words in a stretch of discourse but rather in the intentionally behind using such an utterance.  Still vague?  Ok, let me explain this through the following example taken from Jan Renekema’s Discourse Studies:

A: Say, there’s a good movie playing tonight.

B: Actually, I have to study.

A: Too bad.

B: Yes, I’m sorry.

A: Well, I guess I don’t need to ask you if you want me to pick you up.

Now, why did not speaker B answer A with a statement that looks like: “Really!  That is nice!” or “Really!  Where is it being played?”

The answer to this question from a pragmatic point of view, is that B understood A’s intentions when he said the first statement.  B correctly understood that A was simply inviting him to watch a movie rather than giving his opinion about it.

A pragmatic approach to the above conversation would also determine its meaning on grounds of the maxim of cooperation (that a speaker is expected to cooperate with the spoken to make their conversation communicative).

But what happens when such a maxim is broken?  Pragmatics warns us that a break of any of the ‘felicity conditions’ would result in the so called ‘implicature’ which also has a meaning that must be carefully understood or otherwise one would totally miss the point.  Consider the following examples:

1- Ahmad:  Ali will be in trouble today.

Maher:  Why!  What happened?

Ahmad: It is a nice day today.

Maher: Come off it!  Tell me what happened.

2- Ahmad: Ali will pass the exam.

Maher: Cows can fly!

(1) In the first example, Ahmad is breaking the maxim of ‘relation’.  From a pragmatic point of view, Maher did not comment on the weather because he knew that an ‘implicature’ was taking place, so he responded accordingly.

(2) The maxim of quality (do not say what you believe to be false, or that for which you lack adequate evidence) is being violated here, because it is commonly acknowledged that ‘cows cannot fly’.  A good translator by understanding what happened ‘pragmatically’ in this conversation will certainly understand that Maher wanted to say: “It is impossible” rather than say his opinion about something that is not true in real life.   Perhaps a possible translation of the underlined utterance could be:

– بقطع إيدي من هون إذا علي بينجح

أو: – إذا طار البقر بينجح علي.

Perhaps the point raised here would remind us of Malinowski, an anthropologist who encountered a sort of difficulty in translating utterances of the languages of remote cultures into English.  His main interest was to translate into English some utterances of one language with ONE AIM: he was not interested in translation per se, but he was interested in conveying the culture of a given community through translation.  In most cases, the ‘cultural’ meaning resided in the form of the ST more than in the content, for which reason he chose a strategy in translation which he called “translation with commentary”.  According to him, meaning could be understood better if a given utterance is considered in terms of its: situation of context or context of situation.

Let me give you an example of my own to explain Malinowski’s point:

– يعطيك العافية، ممكن تقول لي كيف بقدر أروح عل بنك؟

A translation with commentary that (1) shows a cultural aspect of Arabs, and (2) gives the meaning that can be understood by the English is:

– May God give you health! Could you please tell me how I can get to the bank? **

** Arabs usually use the underlined expression as a polite introduction for their query when they ask a passing-by person about directions for a given place.

6.         The notion of register:

A group of British linguists formulated the Register theory نظرية اللهجة الخاصة on the basis that “meaning is the raison de etre of linguistics” in an attempt to suggest a framework for finding how meaning can be understood.  (prominent linguists among others in this regard are: Halliday, Carroll, Gregory, Strevens, McIntosh)

According to them to study a language is a waste of time.  You should rather study “sub-languages” which according to them can be defined according to two parameters: user and use.

User-related sub-languages are called dialects and deal with those instances of discourse where idiosyncrasies arise because of corresponding idiosyncrasies that are inherent in the different users.  Example: Do the words that Shakespeare used have the same meaning that these same words refer to nowadays?  Actually not all of them, simply because language changed and many words underwent a change in meaning (take for example: “petty” used by Shakespeare to mean ‘slow’, while nowadays the word ‘petty’ is used to mean ‘silly’).  Thus this type of classification tends to deal mainly with spoken dialects or discourse written as if spoken.

Use-related sub-languages are based mainly on three factors: field (what is going on, the subject matter), mode (the medium through which a given text is produced) and tenor (the relationship between the text producer and text receive).  Here meaning of an utterance is determined on the basis of the sub-language it represents.  Example:

a- I hereby declare the meeting adjourned.

b- How about postponing the meeting?

While both utterances above have the same propositional meaning, they still differ in lexis and in grammar simply because they belong to different registers.

Another simple example is that while ‘shall’ in common core English is used with the first person singular/plural to indicate a future intention, the same word can be used in legal documents with all other pronouns to indicate obligation and commitment by virtue of the document being signed by the parties involved.

7.         Semiotics considers meaning in a different way.  It looks at things as meaningful both in form and content.  The color “red” can be interpreted as ‘danger’ only if we consider this color in certain circumstances as a ‘sign’.

So, from a semiotic point of view a letter, a word, a stretch of words even a text can be understood better in two important ways:

1- when it is regarded as a sign.

2- when it is understood in relation to other sings.

Have a look at the attached article entitled: “Eight Days of Madness” and consider the circled words labeled as ‘signs’. Read them carefully and try to understand their meanings.  The propositional meanings of these ‘utterances’ as such are:

Sign (1)- politician: a person involved in politics or represents a group of people or a state in political affairs, such as: holding talks, signing treaties, etc.

Sign (3)-  The present belongs to the military and to the paramilitary: that there is a state of war against Kosovars involving state military forces supported by mercenaries.

Sign (4)- Both Albanian and Serb: refugees consist of two groups of people: Serbs and Albanians.

Sign (5)- addiction to air strikes: Western military and political leaders have been always engaged in air strikes.

Sign (7)- intervention on the grounds: waging a war on the ground.

So far so good.

Now I would like to claim that additional meanings of each of the above utterances would be attached to them when we consider them as signs.  The following table is illustrative:

Sign (A) Related to Sign (B) Additional (intended) Meaning potential of sign (A) when connected to sign (B)

(Meaning given in Arabic for better illustration)

Politician – The present belongs to the military and to the paramilitary. *** – رجل السياسة الذي لم يعد يحل أو يربط.
Paramilitaries -bands of fascists *** القوات العسكرية المجرمة الموازية للقوات الحكومية.
Both Albanian and Serbs **Another article written by Derek Brown in which he mentions that Kosovars are also persecuting the Serbs on ethnic grounds. – المضطهدين من الصرب والبان كوسوفو على حد سواء.
Air strikes **- The writers reminds the readers about the heavy airs strikes target at Iraq in 1990. الضربات الجوية التي تعودوا عليها بعد حرب الخليج الثانية.
Bands of Fascists **- This reminds us of the Fascist regime in Italy during the World War II.  The writer does not intend to refer to them as related to the Italian ex-regime. العصابات المجرمة.
Press-ganging -a process in which a group of sailors in the 18th century were employed to force men to join the navy. التجنيد الاجباري
Intervention on the ground – “disastrously ignored”   =>  another dangerous option التدخل البري وهو الخيار الأكثر خطورة من بين الخيارات الأخرى.

*** these sings are mentioned inside the article in question.

**  these signs are not mentioned inside the article.

The relationship between two signs is called intertextuality.  This amazing phenomenon is not limited to two signs.  Rather it may extend to cover a series of semiotic relations that would involve a variety of signs inside the text and outside it.

The intertextual link could be between:

– a verbal sign and another verbal sign.

– a verbal sign and experiential memory (individual or communal)

Intertextuality sometimes is a bit passive, meaning it is not necessary to mention the other sign interacting with a sign in question.  Consider the following:

أ: مَن مِن هؤلاء يمكن أن يحل لي مسألة الفيزياء هذه؟

ب: عليك بعبد الله، لا يفتى ومالك بالمدينة.

The above underlined utterance intertextualises with the communal memory of the speakers (Here it is related to the knowledgeable Malik, a very famous jurisprudent who silenced all other jurisprudents in his time).  Since this link doe not give us additional meaning to understand the underlined utterance, it would suffice if you translate it as:

A: Which of these can do this problem in physics for me?

B: Ask Abdullah. He is the best for the job.

(Mentioning of Malik is not necessary here, but if you are playing the role of Malinowski, then your aim to convey an Arabic cultural aspect to the English cannot be achieved unless you resort to literal translation with satisfactory commentary).

In contrast, the above table shows how all the mentioned intertextual links were important in determining the meaning of the sing, something that made it necessary to mention the sources with which these sign intertextualise.

By the way.  Where did all the above intertextual interaction took place?  In the mind of the reader, right?  Does this mean that I was a bit right in my claim that I proposed from the outset?

8.         Sa’Adeddin’s Heuristic Checkist- The Ethnolinguistic Theory

Sa’Adeddin’s theory shifts our attention to the fact that the problem in translating arises because the translator plays several roles that can be described as follows:

Translator is:     a reader of a text written within the constraints of a given ethnic group (A)

Translator is: a writer of a text which must be written in accordance with the norms or constrains imposed by the ethnic group (B) of the target language.

The translator thus must open his eyes to all elements that are solely related to the ethnic group (A) and render them in a way that these will not conflict with the ethnic norms of the ethnic group (B).  The translator is therefore and ethnographer.  He is not only a communicator, who negotiates meaning across languages; he is not an equator (as indicated by the term ‘formal-vs-dynamic equivalence), but rather a comparator, who tires to match the ethnolinguistic characteristics of Source Text (A) with that of Target Text (B).

The following is the ethnolinguistic heuristic checklist:

Sa’Adeddin’s Heuristic Checkist- The Ethnolinguistic Theory

(The theory is a drastic modification of Dell Hymes’ checklist)

A. Message Content Formative Element:

1. Norm of Interpretation

2. Norm of Interaction

3. Text End:

3.1. Main Goal

3.2. Sub Goal

4. Genre

5. Key

6. Topic

6.1. Main

6.2. Sub topic(s)

7. Text Situation

7.1. Setting

7.2. Scene

8. Participants

8.1. Sender

8.2. Addresser

8.3. Receiver/Audience

8.4. Addressee

9. Channel

10. Variety of Expression

B. Text Acts Structure****

**** The text here is divided into sequences.  Each sequence has a theme and a function (a text act) [my own comment]

C. Message Form Constituents:

1. Print Substance (In some cases, Sound Substance)

1.1. System of orthography

1.2. Paragraphing

1.3. Punctuation

2. Text grammatical dependencies:

2.1 (Macro) grammatical dependencies – Cohesion:

2.1.1. Junctives

2.1.2. Grammatical/ Information structure cohesion

2.1.3. Ellipsis

2.1.4. Parallelism, etc.

2.2. (Micro) grammatical dependencies:

2.2.1. Sentences

2.2.2. Clauses

2.2.3. Phrases

Space limits regrettably do not allow me here to talk about all elements of the checklist mentioned above, although they proved instrumental in helping my students in reading/translation courses to understand any text given to them.

9.         Norm of Interpretation and Norm of Interaction

What is the norm of interaction?  Consider the following example from the Holy Quran and the analysis thereof.

“وأقيموا الصلاة وآتوا الزكاة”

The norm of interaction in its narrow sense refers to the relationship among text participants (sender/receiver).  This relation in the above sample is as follows:

Addresser:       Superior (God)

Addressee:      Muslims (inferior)

This means that the Key is “authoritative”  (not an advice for instance).

As for the norm of interpretation, it is simply the knowledge that the addresser and addressee understand when they communicate with each other.  *In the above example, the norm of interpretation is: one of the five pillars of Islam that a Muslim must be committed to.

But why knowing these two norms enable one understand or translate a given text?  I hope the following examples and discussion thereof are illustrative:

1- “يا أخت هارون ما كان أبوك امرأ سوء وما كانت أمك بغيا”

(The problem here is that Mariam did not have a brother called Aaron)

Norm of interaction: insider to insider

This means that both the addresser and the addressee belong to the same ethnic group. In other words, an Arab is deemed here as an outsider and my not fully understand the communicative transaction being held by the two participants here: Mariam, the Mother of Messenger Issa, and Israelis, the Jews.

Norm of interpretation:

Both Meriam and the Jews live in the same community.  They have a knowledge which an outsider like YOU (an Arab reader, I mean) does not have.  This knolwedge is known by Chrisitnas and by the Jews themselves.  They know that according to Judaism, the Torah was revealed unto Mosa, while the Temple was the responsibility of Aron and his descendants.  Thus every ‘sister’ (nurse) worshipping God, as Mariam did, at the Temple of Aron, used to be called ‘Sister of Aron”.

Thus the above verse could be translated correctly as:

“O Sister of the Temple Aron!  Your father was not a bad man (but you are a bad woman) nor your mother was a prostitute (but you are a prostitute)”


Why did I add the commentary between brackets?  In fact, Arabic is replete with such style of writing where an element of a sentence is missing because it is considered to be understood by the reader.  You can refer to another verse if you want to understand me better:

“…فقال الكافرون هذا شيئ عجيب.  أئذا متنا وكنا ترابا؟ ذلك رجع بعيد”

The deleted element here could have been for example: “أئنا لمبعوثون؟”.

Does this again mean that some knowledge does exist in the reader to complement the bulk of knowledge the text presents?

“فلما رأى الشمس بازغة قال هذا ربي هذا أكبر”

Norm of interaction: insider to insider (a soliloquy)

Norm of interpretation: The confused Ibrahim is in his quest for the True God to be worshipped by mankind.  Unsure of what to worship, He is questioning the gods, including celestial beings, that his tribe worship.  [Ibrahim has not been assigned as Messenger yet.]

Possible translation:

“When he saw the sun rising, he said: ‘This is (perhaps) my God because it is bigger.”

In my opinion, therefore it is faulty to say: “This is my God”, a statement which reflects an assured Ibrahim.

“يا بني اسرائيل اذكروا نعمتي التي انعمت عليكم وأني فضلتكم على العالمين

Norm of interaction: superior to inferior (God to the Jews)

insider to insider

Here actually, the addressee is not the Jew who claims to be favored by God, but that Jew who according to Muslims knew that they have always been violating the orders of God.

Norm of interpretation: knowledge about the Jews and that according to the Quran, God is not pleased with them.

George Sale translated the underlined element in the above verse as:

“and that I have favoured you upon all nations”

This translation is wrong.  The use of the present tense is unjustifiable.  George Sale here has assumed an outsider position, i.e. he does not put himself in the shoes of the insider Jew who knew that God does not more favor the Jews.

Possible translation:   “and that I once preferred you to all nations (when you were committed to My orders)”

To convince the most skeptical about the above translation (if we say that he does not know the grammatical use of inna and anna in Arabic) consider the above as a sign and try to understand it with the first surah of the Quran, Al-Fatiha where God says about the Jews that they are the: ones whom God is displeased with.

وسيق الذين اتقوا ربهم الى الجنة زمرا”

وسيق الذين كفروا الى جهنم زمرا”

Norm of interpretation: People destined to go to hell are taken by force to it, while people who had the blessing to go to Paradise wanted someone to guide them to the right way to it.

The above verbs should be translated as: were escorted and were driven respectively.

Now consider the following two utterances which will be discussed here together:

1- “وإذ قال ربك للملائكة إني جاعل في الأرض خليفة، قالوا أتجعل فيها من يفسد فيها ونحن نسبح بحمدك ونقدس لك، قال إني أعلم ما لا تعلمون”

2- “وقيل يا أرض ابلعي مائك ويا سماء أقلعي وغيض الماء وقضي الأمر واستوت على الجودي وقيل بعدا للقوم الظالمين”

A contrastive examination of the above two utterances could reveal the following two facts:

1- The use of the passive voice means that the Flood is something very simple and trivial and is nothing in comparison with the creation of Adam, the father of mankind.

2- Earth does not answer God in the second verse by saying for instance “Why should I do that?”   Neither does the present verse mentions the positive response of Earth such as: “Be your will my Lord”.  The intention here is to assert a fixed rule in the Quran and in the divine ideology which states that when God says to something “Be” then it can do nothing but obey Him willingly or unwillingly.

I also think that “وقيل بعدا للقوم الظالمين” intertextualises with “لمن الملك اليوم” when God after the annihilation of every soul in this life asks a question for which no answer comes except from God Himself, as everything else will have been destroyed by that time.  Perhaps here we can also say that the above verse implies a kind of silence, where even the believers are stunned and silent for what happened.

Anyway, there was a problem in translating the first utterance.  Some translators, George Sale for example, thought that the angels in that utterance are rebellious and are not accepting the orders of God.  Actually not.

The above mentioned utterance can be analysed as follows:

Norm of interpretation: The creation of Adam.  Angels never disobey God (this is again ascertained with reference to another verse that could be treated as a ‘sign’ which says:

(3) “لا يعصون الله ما أمرهم ويفعلون ما يؤمرون”

Norm of interaction: insider to insider (the community of the angels)

Here, in fact, what makes the verse different is the Key which is here not authoritative as in other verses but ‘informative’.  The key of the reply of the angels is “surprise”.  Here, the translation should make sure that it does not present the angels as rebellious.  It should maintain the semiotic relation that exists in Arabic between the above verses (1) and (3).  Thus, a possible translation could be as follows:

“When your Lord said to the angels: ‘I shall make a substitute on Earth’.  They said (with surprise) ‘Why should there be on it those who …………”

Notice how the “absent-agent” structure is used to achieve politeness as direct speech in English is more likely to be understood as a censure or that the addresser and the addressee are both equal in status.

Again to support my view, one should read Arabic grammar books on the uses of hamza.  One of these uses is for surprise.  Another evidence can be found in the following verse:

“وقلنا اسجدوا لآدم”4-

Here God does not say “We have ordered the angels to worship Adam” which means that God is not displeased with them because of what they said.

The above verse (4) as well can be analysed in an astonishing way:

The indirect addressee here is mankind in general.  So the norm of interaction for the different readers is as follows:

From God to Non-Muslims (mainly Christians and Jews): insider to insider

From God to Muslims: insider to outsider

In fact, it is only in the culture of the non-Muslims that greeting can be performed by “worshipping” (sujood).  Check any English-English dictionary and you will find it defining that word as: “to show honor to”.  It is permissible in some non-Muslim communities to bow one’s head to show honor to somebody, while the word “sujood” in Arabic refers to an act that must be only made to honor God.  Here it is possible therefore to translate the verse as: “Worship Adam”, while the problem remains with the Arabic reader (the outsider) to understand it in the right way.

Let us move to samples of other examples from “Eight Days of Madness”:

The writer in this news-commentary is assuming a variety of roles with regards to the norm of interaction.  Basically we have to take into consideration, that he is writing in the Guardian Unlimited, an online newspaper whose readers are mainly native speakers of English from Britian, America and Australia (I got this piece of information directly from the writer himself).  It means that mostly in this article the norm of interaction is: insider to insider (the community being the Western community).

Now, if we want to translate the article into Arabic, then the norm of interaction will be:

Insider (Western) à Outsider (Arabic)

Here we need to be alert when being involved in such instances where the writer is insider and the Arabic reader is outsider.  Examples:

1- both Albanian and Serbs

Here it should be made clear to the outsider that both Albanians and Serbs are suffering.  Notice that the Arabic outsider has usually thought that only the Muslims were being subject to genocide.

2- our military and political leaders

Here the pronoun ‘our’ should be dealt with carefully as it refers to an outsider party from an Arabic point of view.

3- press ganging

insider to insider again.  Here it is only known to the Western people that there was a time when men were forced to join the navy and fight against their will in an act that was known to be as “press ganging”.

Now let us move to the norm of interpretation.  To make sure that this analysis is as much accurate as possible, I got the related information from the writer.

1- The article is published online with links to other articles that can be referred to on the same topic.  Brown says: “there is a mass of detailed (and in some cases simplified) additional information available on the website, most of it directly linked to my article”

2- Yugoslac ……….media”

Milosovic is trying to stop the war against his country in one way or another.  Knowledge of the reasons of the war is important.

3- The day’s other main development…..

The Western community cares a lot about their soldiers who go to war.  According to the writer, “Also – I write as a non-American – I think that the USA news audience has an ingrained and passionate interest in anything that happens to ‘our boys’ ”

4- There are reports………the rebels.

Here, an Arab would perhaps feel confused because joining the fight against the kuffar is a duty upon every Muslim.  Perhaps to understand it better we should note again that the writer here is: insider (representing here not the Western Community but the Kosovars) and is addressing the Western community which knows what he means (again, insider), leaving the Arab reader as an outsider.

I asked an Kosovar (insider) about these lines and his answer was surprising.  He could actually understand what the writer was saying.  He told me that some KLA fighters used to go to the provincial borders and force male refugees to join the rebels.  Paradoxically, those same KLA soldiers did not want to join the fight themselves because they were afraid of the war.  This paradox was subject to criticism equally by Kosovars and by the West.

Well, that would be the end of my efforts in this paper to show something which I have been thinking about for a long time.  I wanted just to mention that another paper is being made now concerning “Eight Days of Madness” which covers an in-depth analysis of the article and proposes a theory for understanding and translating “a news commentary”.  The attempt through this paper and other ones is to open one’s eyes to the fact that reading and translating are not just simply a transfer of meaning from one language to another.  I have also tried to show above some promising areas in linguistics (register theory, pragmatics, intertextuality, ethnolinguistic theory) that would help the reader to know what meaning he must look for while reading, that he must be aware of every signal that could trigger out a series of intertexts in his mind and most importantly that he must know what he is reading.

And one last point,,,,,,

Where does knowledge lie?  Is it in the paper, in your mind or in both?

Their concluding prayer is: Praise be to God the Lord of the worlds…..



Eight days of madness

Thursday April 1, 1999

By Derek Brown

Yugoslav President Slobodan Milosevic has held talks with the leading ethnic Albanian politician of Kosovo, Ibrahim Rugova, according to the state controlled media. The two men agreed to work together for peace in the embattled province.

The announcement is a deeply unconvincing attempt to divert public and Nato attention from the disgusting campaign of ethnic cleansing still being carried out in Kosovo.

It is irrelevant, because Rugova is irrelevant. He is a deeply honourable man who for years has led a non-violent campaign against Belgrade’s relentless oppression of the Albanian majority in the province. It is highly likely that he has been pressured, to put it politely, into a show of co-operation with Milosevic. But even if he is speaking freely his time, alas, is over. The present belongs to the military – and to the paramilitaries.

The day’s other main development could be a lot more serious. Three US servicemen, cut and bruised and fearful, have been paraded before Serbian television viewers.

Steven Gonzales, Andrew Ramirez, and James Stone were captured on Wednesday. They were members of a reconnaissance unit operating on the Macedonia-Kosovo border, though it is not yet clear which side of it they were on.

The three men are leading the news bulletins today. In one sense that is right and proper. Their plight is appalling. They are being held by a violently hostile and volatile regime. They are part of the human dimension of the Kosovo tragedy.

In another sense, it is sick that Nato policy today is being shaped by this, very horrible, very small, turn of events. After all, 700,000 Kosovars, both Albanian and Serb, have fled their homes. Three thousand people an hour are still trudging across the provincial borders. The bombs and missiles are still crashing down.

Yet the fate of Gonzales, Ramirez, and Stone could, conceivably, provide a chink of light in the black horror of Kosovo. Although they were part of the United Nations ‘peacekeeping’ force in Macedonia and not (so far as we know) under Nato command, surely Nato now has an obligation to secure their release.

One option might be to offer a respite or suspension of operations in exchange for their return. That is unlikely, given our political and military leaders’ continued addiction to air strikes.

Another, more dangerous, option would be a rescue mission, of the gung-ho kind so dear to US hearts. If it achieved nothing else, it would drive home the message that has been so disastrously ignored so far: that order can only be restored to Kosovo by intervention on the ground.

That intervention should be directed not only at the Yugoslav forces and the various bands of fascists they are sheltering. It should also aim to neutralise the Albanian gangsters of the so-called Kosovo Liberation Army, which has now told male refugees they must join the struggle against Serbia, or else.

There are reports that KLA thugs are forcing male refugees to leave their families and join the rebels. Such press-ganging is just as dreadful as the forced evictions of the Serbian ethnic cleansers. And no amount of cruise missiles will stop either kind of atrociousness.


1- Bhatia, V. (1993). Analysing Genre, Longman, London.

2- Hatim, B. and Mason, I. (1997). Discourse and the Translator. Longman. London.

3- Hymes, D. (1974). Foundations in Sociolinguistic: An Ethnographic Approach. The University of Pennsylvania Press.

4- Renekema, Jan. (1993). Discourse Studies. John Benjamins Publishing Company. Amsterdam

5- Sa’Adeddin M. (1989). “Writing Across Language Communities: The Structure of Arabic Text”, Applied Linguistics, London.

6- Sa’Adeddin M. (1990). “Towards a Viable Applied Linguistic Theory of Translaion: An Ethnolingusitic Point of View”, Translation in Performance. Ed. Fawcet, P., Heathcote, O. University of Bradford. London.

7- Sale, G. (1950). The Koran (A Translation of the Arabic Origin). Frederick Warne and Co. London.

8- Summers D. et al. (1992). Longman Dictionary of English Language and Culture. Longman. London.

Compact Discs:

1- “Aaron”. Encarta Encyclopedia (2000). Microsoft Corporation.

2- Encarta World English Dictionary.

Online References:

1- Brown, D. “Eight Days of Madness”. Guardian Unlimited. Retrieved from: http://www.guardian.co.uk/Guardian_Eye/0,2837,308044,00.html on April 1, 1999.

2- Jiang. N. “Introducing the Ethnography of communication”.  Retrieved:  http://www.courses.psu.edu/spcom/spcom210_nxj6/ethno.html on May 5, 2003.

المصادر العربية:

1- القرآن الكريم

2- قطب، سيد. (1996).في ظلال القرآن. دار الشروق. بيروت.

1- فهزموهم بإذن الله (a) وقتل داود جالوت (b).

Consider another version and see the difference in meaning:

– وقتل داود جالوت وانتهت المعركة بفوز المسلمين

(2) This verse represents two aspects of a scene that has been already set in a previous verse.  The function of each aspect therefore is to mention (a) the last event that took place in the story, and (b) the conclusion of the whole story.

(1) This is different from (2).  Here surprisingly the last event in the story is mentioned after its end.  The foregrounding of motif (a) serves a significant motivation.  The story has come to an end with motif (a), then it would not be illogical to say that what comes after the story is a comment on it.  In other words, the Quranic verse should be understood in this way:

“The battle ended with the victory of the Muslims over the non-Muslims.  This battle has a lot of lessons.  The most important lesson of these is that a young man like the modestly armed Dawood could by his faith in God defeat an armed-to-the-teeth infidel.”

* Each participant communicates on the assumption that the other participant is familiar with the norm of interpretation on which their discourse is based.

القرآن الكريم ونظريات الترجمة

آي الذكر الحكيم ونظريات الترجمة المعاصرة

محمد يحيى أبوريشة

نائب رئيس المجمع العربي للمترجمين المحترفين



أولا- مقدمة:

أنزل الله سبحانه وتعالى القرآن الكريم على نبيه محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم ليكون للمسلمين دستورا وقانونا يبنون حياتهم وفقا لآياته وأحكامه وليعيشونه واقعا عمليا في سلوكهم وتصرفاتهم ليحققوا بذلك الرسالة العظمة التي حملها الإنسان وهي خلافة الله في الأرض وعبادته وحده من غير شريك ولتحقيق الصلاح في الدنيا ونيل نعيم الآخرة.  والقرآن الكريم ، كما قال سيد قطب هو “النداء العلوي الجليل الذي يرفع العمر ويباركه ويزكيه” ” (قطب 1996: 11)  وهو الذي يبين للناس الغاية من وجودهم ليتجنبوا الوقوع في “المستنقع الآسن وفي الدرك الهابط”.  بل أن القرآن الكريم يبين لمن يتدبر آياته “التناسق الجميل بين حركة الإنسان كما يريدها الله وحركة الكون الذي أبدعه الله”. ” (قطب 1996: 11)

وبشكل أكثر تفصيلا، فإن القرآن الكريم يضم في آياته وسوره أحكاما شتى تضيء للمسلم طريقه في حياته اليومية وفي معتقداته وتصوراته وتعاملاته مع الآخرين من البشر بل ومع الحيوان والنبات والجماد من حوله ليعيش الحياة التي رسمها الله له، حياة الطهر والنقاء، حياة كريمة في الدنيا، وحياة أبدية خالدة في الجنان في الآخرة.

والحديث حول أهمية القرآن الكريم في حياة المسلم يطول ولا يسعني في هذه الورقة المتواضعة أن ألم بكافة نواحيها، لكنني سأبدأ هذا البحث بإقرار حقيقة لا غبار عليها وهي أن تدبر آيات الله في القرآن الكريم واجب على كل مسلم حتى يتسنى له تطبيقها في حياته العملية والامتثال لأوامر الله عز وجل.  قال تعالى: كِتَابٌ أَنْزَلْنَاهُ إِلَيْكَ مُبَارَكٌ لِيَدَّبَّرُوا آَيَاتِهِ وَلِيَتَذَكَّرَ أُولُو الْأَلْبَابِ (ص:29)، ولذلك فالمسلم إن قرأ القرآن وتدبر معانيه فله أجر أكبر من أجر الذي يقرأه دون فهم معانيه.  فالقراءة الواعية للقرآن الكريم أمر جوهري وحساس في تطبيق المسلم لأوامر الله عز وجل.

على صعيد آخر، أراد علماء اللغة أن يصلوا إلى نظرية مانعة جامعة لاتقان الترجمة، ولا أخص هنا ترجمة معاني القرآن الكريم، بل أعمم ذلك على كافة أنواع الترجمة، عامة وتخصصية، شفوية وتحريرية، وزخرت كتب منظري الترجمة بنظرياتهم حول هذا الموضوع وفي كافة اللغات، ومن بينها العربية، لكنهم لم يصلوا إلى إجماع حول نظرية محددة بعينها كما أن الدارس في هذا المجال يدرك بسهولة وأحيانا بصعوبة أن المصطلح الذي يطلقه أحد علماء اللغة على ظاهرة لغوية ما قد يقوم آخر بذكره لكن بطريقة أخرى.

وهنا لا بد من توضيح نقطة هامة،  فلعلنا لا نجافي الحقيقة إن قلنا أن ما من أحد من المنظرين في مجالي علم اللغة والترجمة إلا ويجزم أن الترجمة بمفهومها البسيط تتكون من ثلاث مراحل هي: القراءة واستخلاص الأفكار (المعنى) ومن ثم وضع النص في اللغة الهدف.  لكن السؤال الذي يطرح نفسه: ما هي الأدوات التي يمكن للقارئ من خلالها أن يقرأ النص قراءة كافية فعالة تمكنه من الحصول على المعنى المراد؟  وللإجابة على مثل هذا السؤال قام العديد من علماء اللغة والترجمة باستنباط نظرياتهم وطرقهم الخاصة التي تمكن المترجم من فهم معنى النص قبل القيام بترجمته[1].

من هنا أقول بأن النقطة المشتركة بين قراءة القرأن الكريم ونظريات الترجمة تتمثل في آليات القراءة.  فكيف من الممكن تدبر معاني آيات الذكر الحكيم؟  وهل يمكن الاستعانة بنظريات الترجمة المتعلقة بتحليل المعنى في فهمنا للقرآن الكريم أم لا؟  هذا هو موضوع هذه الورقة.

ثانيا- المقدمة النظرية للبحث:

1- مشكلة البحث:

نزل القرآن الكريم على قوم قريش بلغتهم العربية الفصيحة ولا بد وأنهم كانوا يفهمون معاني الآيات القرآنية، كيف لا وقد كانت قريش من أكثر القبائل العربية بلاغة ومهارة في استخدام اللغة العربية.  أما الآن، فقد ابتعد الناس عن اللغة العربية الفصيحة وأصبح استخدامه مقتصرا على دارسي اللغة العربية والعلوم الشرعية، أما عامة الناس وغير المختصين في العربية أو الشريعة فيستخدمون لهجات عربية مختلفة بعيدة نسبيا في نحوها ومفرداتها بل ونظاميها الصرفي والصوتي عن اللغة العربية الفصيحة مما يجعل عليهم من الصعب أن يفهموا نصا مكتوبا باللغة العربية الفصيحة، ويقتضي ذلك صعوبةً في فهمهم لمعاني القرآن الكريم، وهذه هي المشكلة البحثية الأولى، فكيف يمكن تحسين قدرات القارئ اللغوية عند قراءة القرآن الكريم لتدبر معانيه العظيمة ولاكتشاف الأساليب البلاغية الإعجازية في القرآن الكريم؟

من ناحية أخرى، ما من نظرية من نظريات الترجمة إلا وتم استنباطها من خلال تحليل النصوص المختلفة باللغات المختلفة، وبمعنى آخر كان لا بد من جمع عينات لغوية محكية ومكتوبة ومن ثم تحليلها للوصول إلى نظريات خاصة في الترجمة لتمكين دارس الترجمة من تعلم الترجمة وممارستها بشكل فعال، فمثلا عمد الباحثان حاتم ومايسون (Hatim & Mason: 1997) إلى استخلاص معظم الأمثلة من الصحف في حين استخدمت الباحثة منى بيكر (Baker: 1995) كتابا اسمه “Hero from Zero” (بطل من الصفر) وترجمة لهذا الكتاب إلى العربية في سبيل توضيح نظرياتها في تعليم الترجمة وتعلمها، وغيرهم كثير.  فالسؤال: هل يمكن لنظريات الترجمة أن تتحسن وأن تقدم حلولا ممتازة أو جيدة لمشكلة تعليم المترجمين، وهم في طور القراءة وتحليل المعاني، من خلال الاستشهاد بالآيات القرآنية؟

والسؤال الأخير الذي يهمنا هنا هو: إذا ما أراد شخص ما أن يترجم معاني القرآن الكريم، كيف نضمن أن يفهم هذا المترجم الآيات الكريمات بحيث يمكن له ترجمة معانيها دون خطأ علما بأن الخطأ في ترجمة معاني القرآن الكريم سيؤدي إلى كارثة كبيرة إذا ما أخذنا بعين الاعتبار أن ملايين المسلمين والملايين من غير المسلمين سيقرؤون هذه الترجمة؟  ولتوضيح هذه الفكرة نتساءل: هل أخطأ جورج سيل عندما ترجم الآية الكريمة “إنها بقرة صفراء فاقع لونها تسر الناظرين” (البقرة:69) إلى الانجليزية:

“She is a red cow” (Sale 1940:6)

أي: “إنها بقرة حمراء….” وعندما ترجم: “يا أيها الناس اعبدوا ربكم الذي خلقكم والذين من قبلكم لعلكم تتقون” (البقرة:21) إلى ما معناه “يا أهل مكة“؟[2] بل كيف نضمن أن المترجم المسلم لن يجعل من معتقداته الخاصة به تتدخل في الترجمة بحيث يترجم الآية الكريم وفقا للمعنى الذي فهمه؟  ماذا لو كان المترجم ينتمي إلى فئة أو طائفة لها معتقداتها الخاصة وإن كانت مسلمة؟[3]

2- الغايات والأهداف من البحث:

الهدف النهائي على المستوى البعيد من خلال هذا البحث ومن خلال كافة الأبحاث التي يقوم بإعدادها الباحث[4] إنما هي الوصول إلى طرقة فعالة لتأهيل المترجمين عمليا من خلال تقديم المادة النظرية بشكل عملي يمكن لهم فهمه وتطبيقه في فهم النصوص المراد ترجمتها أيضا كان نوعها.

أما عن الأهداف الخاصة بالبحث، أي الأهداف المباشرة فهي تتعلق بفهم آيات القرآن الكريم وفقا لنظريات الترجمة، وتفسير نظريات الترجمة للطلبة من خلال الاستشهاد بأمثلة من القرآن الكريم.

لعلنا كثيرا ما نسمع العوام من الناس يرددون مقولات كثيرة عن القرآن الكريم فيقولون أن العلماء اكتشفوا حقيقة علمية كذا وأن هذه الحقيقة قد ذكرها القرآن الكريم، بل أن بعض العلماء قد خصصوا كتبا حول هذه الحقائق أو التحليلات الخاصة بهم وقد يصلوا إلى نبوءات غيبية يثبتونها من خلال القرآن الكريم[5].  إلا أن هذه المنهجية لا تنسحب على هذا البحث الذي يراعي تنزيه القرآن الكريم عن إعطاءه هدفا أو أهدفا غير التي رسمها الله عز وجل للبشرية جمعاء والتي تتلخص في أولى آيات لذكر الحكيم لعد سورة الفاتحة في سورة البقرة والمتمثلة بقوله سبحانه وتعالى “ألم. ذلك الكتاب لا ريب فيه هدى للمتقين” (البقرة: 1-2)، ففي حين أن بعض الحقائق العلمية يمكن الاستئناس لها من خلال آيات القرآن الكريم إلا أن العديد من النظريات العلمية يكذب بعضها بعضا وكل ذلك لا يتفق مع جلال القرآن الكريم (قطب 1996).

إذن ليست الغاية من خلال هذا البحث محاولة إثبات أن نظريات الترجمة موجودة في القرآن الكريم، بل تتمثل الغايات المباشرة بما يلي:

أ‌-      أن يقوم الباحثون في الترجمة بالاستشهاد بالآيات القرآنية عند مناقشة القضايا والتراكيب اللغوية التي تساعد دارس الترجمة إن استوعبها وفهمها على اتقانه لصنعة الترجمة.

ب‌-  أن يتمكن المسلم إن انتبه إلى الخصائص اللغوية التي لا بد من أخذها بعين الاعتبار لغايات الترجمة من أن يتدبر آيات الذكر الحكيم.

ج- أن يتمكن ناقد ترجمات معاني القرآن الكريم من خلال استخدام بعض النظريات في الترجمة من العثور على الأخطاء في ترجمة معاني القرآن الكريم إن وجدت.

وسيعرض البحث في فقراته اللاحقة أمثلة وافية عن كل غاية من هذه الغايات.

3- محددات البحث:

هذا البحث هو بحث لغوي بحت يتصل بمعاني القرآن الكريم وفي بعض الأحيان ترجمة هذه المعاني وفقا للغايات المحددة أعلاه، لهذا لن يقوم البحث بالمقارنة بين الترجمات المختلفة لمعاني القرآن الكريم بل سيكتفي بالإشارة إلى مواطن الخطأ والصواب في هذه الترجمات عند الضرورة.

ولن يناقش البحث النظريات المختلفة في القراءة بل سيكتفي بالإشارة إلى نظريات بعض الباحثين حيث أن النظريات كثيرة ولا يتسع المجال هنا لمناقشتها كافة، على أمل أن تكون العينة البحثية ومناقشتها كافية لفتح آفاق من يدرس الترجمة ومن يتلو القرآن الكريم من تغيير سلوكيات قراءاتهم للنص بشكل أفضل.

4- عينة البحث

تتكون عينة البحث من بعض الآيات من القرآن الكريم، وجميع التحليلات الخاصة بها موجودة في ملحق البحث في حين تم التطرق لبعضها في متن البحث.

5- منهجية البحث:

في هذا البحث، سنتطرق إلى كل نظرية على حدة ونشرحها بشكل بسيط مختصر ونقدم من آيات القرآن الكريم وسوره وعلى ضوء النقاش يقترح الباحث المعنى الذي توصل له.  وسيكتفي الباحث بمناقشة بعض الأمثلة وترك بعضها الآخر في ملحقات هذه الورقة.

ثالثا- مناقشة عينة البحث على ضوء نظريات الترجمة:

1- عن كتاب In Other Words

تحدثت منى بيكر (Baker 1995) في كتابها In Other Words عن مستويات عدم التطابق بين اللغتين، مع إشارة خاصة إلى اللغتين العربية والانجليزية.  فيما يلي بعض مما جاءت به وبعض الأمثلة القرآنية التوضيحية لذلك.

أ‌- عدم التطابق النحوي

يلاحظ في الفصل الخاص بعدم التطابق النحوي في الكتاب المذكور (Baker 1995) شُحَّا في الأمثلة خاصة فيما يتعلق بالزمن والوقت في الانجليزية والعربية حيث أن الكاتبة –وهذا أمر غريب- لم تذكر أمثلة من اللغة العربية إطلاقا بل ذهبت بعيدا إلى اللغة الصينية واليابانية وغيرها.  لننظر إلى الأمثلة القرآنية التالية ونخرج باستنتاج حول الزمن والوقت كعنصر من عناصر عدم التطابق النحوي بين اللغتين العربية والانجليزية:

[1] “وجيء يومئذ بجهنم”

[2]- “وقيل يا أرض ابلعي ماءك”

[3] فلم تقتلون أنبياء الله من قبل”

في هذه الآيات الكريمات نجد أن الأفعال التي كانت فيها تعبر عن أوقاتا مختلفة كما يلي:

الفعل نوع الفعل الدلالة الزمنية القرينة
جيء ماض-مبني للمجهول مستقبل “يومئذ”
قيل ماض-مبني للمجهول ماض السياق ذاته في الآية الكريمة
تقتلون مضارع ماض “من قبل”

إذن يمكن لمدرس نظريات الترجمة من خلال المثال أن يبين لطلبته أن الوقت في اللغة العربية لا يمكن فهمه من الفعل وحده بل لا بد من وجود قرينة، وذلك خلافا للفعل باللغة الانجليزية الذي إما أن يدل على حدث يشمل اللحظة الحالية (الحاضر) أو حدث لا يشمل اللحظة الحالية (ماض)[6].

ب‌- الارتباط اللفظي

تشير بيكر أيضا (Baker 1995:p.183) إلى قضية الضمير في الترجمة باعتبار أن الضمير جزء مما تسميه بأدوات الربط اللفظي.  ومن هذه الأدوات ما أسمته الكاتبة بـ Substitution (انظر: Baker 1995: p.p.186-190))  وتعني هذه الكلمة تحقيق الارتباط اللفظي عن طريق استخدام كلمات مرجعية تحمل نفس المعنى، أي أن تضع كلمة مثلا مكان كلمة أخرى لتدل على نفس المدلول.  يمكن لتوضيح هذه الفكرة أن نذكر الآية الكريمة التالية:

“لمَ لم تسجد لما خلقت بيدي، أستكبرت أم كنت من العالين” (ص: 75)

لفهم الآية بشكل أفضل، يمكن تطبيق مبدأ Substitution فمن الواضح في الآية الكريمة أن المدلول في عبارة: “لما خلقت بيدي” هو آدم عليه السلام.  كان من الممكن أن تكون الآية مثلا: لماذا لم تسجد لآدم؟  لكن الله تعالى إذا استبدل كلمة “آدم” بعبارة آخرى هي: “لما خلقت بيديَّ” إنما تدل على هدف بلاغي هام.  فهذه العبارة الأخيرة إنما ينسب الله بها آدم إليه، وحيث أن الله عظيم الشأن فلا يمكن أن ينسب إلى ذاته خلقا من مخلوقاته وفقا لهذه الآية إلا للتشديد على مكانة هذا المخلوق لديه.  نستنتج من ذلك أن آدم وأبناء آدم لهم مرتبة عظيمة عند الله ، وما كان للقارئ أن يستوعب هذه الفكرة لو أن الآية ذكرت “آدم” بدلا من تعبير “لما خلقت بيدي”.

ج- التقديم والتأخير

ذكرت بيكر في فصل آخر من المرجع المذكور (Baker 1995: 119-215) فصلا كاملا عن ما اسمته بـ Thematic Structure أي الهيكل الموضوعي للجملة.  وتحديدا في الصفحة 171 تحدثت عن التأخير الذي يقوم به الكاتب بتأخير عنصر ما على غيره في الجملة.  وفي هذا السياق ايضا، نجد آيات قرآنية كثيرة تمثل فيها قضية التأخير والتقديم علما مهما في المعنى منها:

1-“وإذ ابتلى إبراهيمَ ربهُ بكلمات فأتمهن” (البقرة: 124)

2-“إنما يخشى اللهً من عباده العلماءُ”  (فاطر: 28)

3-“فهزموهم بإذن الله وقتل داود جالوت” (البقرة: 251)

من المهم تنبيه القارئ أو الطالب إلى قضية التأخير والتقديم في الآيتين الأوليتين، حيث أن القرآن يركز على “الابتلاء الذي تعرض له إبراهيم” و”خشية الله”.  أما بالنسبة للآية الثالثة، فضية التقديم والتأخير تختلف هنا، حيث أن هنالك تأخير لقتل داود لجالوت.  فلو أن أحدنا أراد روية القصة فإنه سيبدأ من اللحظة التي توجه بنو إسرائيل إلى نبي لهم ليدعوا الله فيأذن لهم بالقتال وصولا إلى اللحظة التي يُقتَل بها جالوت على يد جالوت وبعد ذلك تنتهي القصة بنصر المؤمنين.  أما هنا في هذه الآية الكريم، فنجد أن حدثا وقع أثناء القصة قد تم تأخيره إلى آخر القصة.  وفي ذلك دلالة هامة يمكن تفسيرها على أنها الدرس الذي على قارئ القرآن أن يتعلمه وهو أن داود الشاب الضعيف بقوة إيمانه تمكن من قتل طاغوت من جبابرة الكفر.  وهنا يمكن أن ننظر إلى الحرف “و” قبل كلمة “قتل” على أنها تخدم غرض التفسير لا العطف.

2- بعض نظريات ديبوغراند ودريسلر في علم النص:

ذكر ديبوغراند ودريسلر (De Beaugrande and Dressler1981) بعض الخصائص التي تتعلق بالنص منها ما يلي:

أ‌- Coherence

يذكر المؤلفان المثال التالي:

The King was in the counting house, counting all his money;

The Queen was in the parlour, eating bread and honey;

The Maid was in the garden, hanging out the clothes;

Along came a blackbird and pecked off her nose.

(De Beaugrande and Dressler 1981)

في المثال السابق، يشير المؤلفان إلى أنك سوف تفهم أن الملك والملكة زوجان وأنهما يعيشان في قصر، وذلك على الرغم من أن النص لا يذكر ذلك صراحة، وخلصا إلى أن النص لكي يكون نصا فلا بد من أن يكون هنالك التحام معنوي بين عناصره. لنطبق هذه القاعدة على المثال التالي:

“أعوذ بالله من الشيطان الرجيم

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم”

وفقا لقاعدة الالتحام المعنوي سابقة الذكر، يجب أن يكون هنالك رابط كبير بين الاستعاذة والبسملة. نلاحظ أن الاستعاذة إنما هي قول المسلم في بداية قراءته للقرآن الكريم، حيث يلجأ المسلم إلى الله تعالى ليحميه من شر الشيطان المطرود من رحمة الله.  وحيث أن المسلم إذ يقرأ الاستعاذة يدعو الله أن يقيه شر إبليس[7]، إذن فمن البديهي أن نقول أن العبارة التي تليها، أي البسملة، هي السلاح الذي يقاتل به المسلم إبليس وهذا السلاح هو الرحمة.  فالرحمة واللعنة ضدَّان لا يلتقيان، وفي حال كان الإنسان موجودا في إطار رحمة الله تعالى، بعد عن شر إبليس بعد المشرق عن المغرب.

من جهة ثانية، من المعروف لدى جميع من يدرس كتابة الفقرة، بالعربية أو بالانجليزية، أن الفقرة تتكون من مقدمة وعرض وخاتمة.  فإذا ما طبقنا هذا العنصر على القرآن الكريم، فإننا نرى ان القرآن الكريم يبدأ بـ “أعوذ بالله من الشيطان الرجيم” وينتهي بـ “قل أعوذ برب الناس” وبين هذه وتلك “رحمة اللهط ألا وهي النصوص القرآنية التي تخرج الإنسان من الظلمات إلى النور، بل هي الرحمة التي تنقذ الإنسان من الشيطان الرجيم.

وهكذا للحصول على رحمة الله لا بد للإنسان من إطاعة أمره، والمسلم إذ يقرا القرآن فإنه يريد أن يعرف أوامر الله تعالى ونواهيه ويطبقها في حياته، عندها يصبح في دائرة الرحمة بعيدا عن دائرة الشر ودائرة الشيطان الرجيم.

ويدعم هذا الاستنتاج الحديث الصحيح

“قال الشيخ الألباني :  صحيح   سند الحديث :   ” حدثنا وهب بن بقية عن خالد يعني بن عبد الله عن خالد يعني الحذاء عن أبي تميمة عن أبي المليح عن رجل قال: كنت رديف النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فعثرت دابته فقلت تعس الشيطان فقال لا تقل تعس الشيطان فإنك إذا قلت ذلك تعاظم حتى يكون مثل البيت ويقول بقوتي ولكن قل بسم الله فإنك إذا قلت ذلك تصاغر حتى يكون مثل الذباب.” أخرجه أبو داود في كتاب الأدب (موقع روح الإسلام 2007: رقم الحديث 4982)

وهكذا فقد أمر الرسول الكريم عليه الصلاة والتسليم صاحبه بأن يستخدم سلاح الرحمة لمواجهة الشيطان.   وذاك إذن مثال واحد يبين لنا كيف يمكن تطبيق مبدأ الالتحام المعنوي في فهم القرآن الكريم.

ب‌- التناص Intertextuality

يعرِّف المؤلفان كلمة intertextuality أو التناص على أنها الظاهر النصية التي يعتمد فيها فهم النص وإدراك معناه على فهم المتلقي لبعض النصوص الأخرى (De Beaugrande and Dressler 1981) .

وهنا أرجو أن أشير إلى المثال الذي تفضل به زميلي الأستاذ الفاضل د. أحمد الشيخ، في ورقته الممتازة بعنوان “Translation of the Holy Quran: Between the Transfer of Meaning and the Advocacy of Ideology” حيث تطرق إلى خطأ ترجمة معاني القرآن الكريم لبعض الجهات حيث أنها ذكرت في متن ترجمة سورة الفاتحة عبارة معناها: “اليهود” تفسيرا لعبارة “المغضوب عليهم” و”المسيحيين” تفسيرا لعبارة “ولا الضالين” وقد ذكر الأستاذ الشيخ أن سورة الفاتحة من أوائل السور التي نُزَّلت على المسلمين وكان ذلك قبل أن تقوم دولة الإسلام بشكل كامل، وهذا يفضي إلى أن عبارة “الذين أنعمت عليهم” إنما تشير إلى أهل الكتاب فيما مضى ممن أنعم الله عليهم بأن هداهم صراطه المستقيم.

تساعدنا نظرية التناص intertextuality على تأكيد هذا الافتراض، وذلك بالاستناد إلى آية أخرى هي: “يا بني إسرائيل اذكروا نعمتي التي أنعمت عليكم وأني فضلتكم على العالمين”.  وأعتقد أن التفسير واضح تماما من خلال هذا النص الثاني ويؤيد بالفعل ما جاء به د. أحمد الشيخ في مداخلته.

3- نظرية Speech Acts (أفعال الكلام)

يشير حاتم ومايسون (Hatim and Mason 1997:59) إلى نظرية أفعال الكلام التي جاء بها ج. أوستن ويعرفانها بأنها قدرة الجمل على القيام بالأفعال.  وتسمى القوة الفاعلة المصاحبة للجملة بـ Illocutionary Act أما القسمين الآخرين لأفعال الكلام فهما Locutionary Act الذي يمثل فحوى الكلام المتحدث به، وPerlocutionary Act الذي يمثل الأثر المصاحب لفعل الجملة.  ويمكنني أن أضرب مثالا مبسطا هنا لتوضيح أهمية الأفعال الكلامية في الترجمة:

1-أحمد: “خذ هذه النقود لك”

علي: “يعطيك العافية”

2- ماهر: “آسف لقد اضعت نقودك!”

علي: “يعطيك العافية!”

تختلف القوة المصاحبة لـ “يعطيك العافية” في المثال الأول عن نظيرها في المثال الثاني، حيث أن الأولى إنما هي “شكر” في حين أن الثانية “ذمٌّ”.  ومن ناحية الترجمة، يجب ترجمة الأولى باختيار عبارة للشكر بينما نترجم الثانية باختيار عبارة أخرى تدل على الذم مثلا:

1-     Thank you very much.  (Thanking)

2-     Thank you for nothing! (Censuring)

وتنسحب القاعدة ذاتها على آيات الذكر الحكيم.  لندرس معا الآية الكريمة التالية:

“حتى إذا أتوا على واد النمل، قالت نملة: يا أيها النمل ادخلوا مساكنكم لا يحطِمَنَّكم سليمان وجنوده وهم لا يشعرون” (سورة النمل:18)

والذي فعلته النملة وفقا لتحليل نظرية Speech Acts هو ما يلي:

أ‌-      يا: نادت

ب‌-  أيها: نبَّهت

ت‌-  النمل: حددت

ث‌-  ادخلوا مساكنكم: أمرت

ج‌-   لا يحطِمنَّكم: نهت

ح‌-   سليمان: خصَّصت

خ‌-   وجنوده: عمَّمت

د‌-     وهم لا يشعرون: اعتذرت

وهنا لو طلبنا من المترجم مثلا أن يترجم ما قالته النملة (بعيدا عن أغراض الترجمة الدينية) لوجب عليه أن يترجم كافة هذه القوى الكلامية المصاحبة لكل عنصر من العناصر أعلاه.  فمثلا يمكن ترجمة التنبيه بقولنا: Look out!  وعبارة: “وهم لا يشعرون” إلى unintentionally.

4- النظرية اللغوية العرقية

ظهرت النظرية اللغوية العرقية Ethnolinguistic theory على يد أستاذنا المرحوم د. محمد أكرم سعد الدين، وقد كان الهدف منها تحديد قائمة بكل ما يمكن تحليله في النص تمهيدا لفهمه وترجمته إلى اللغة الأخرى (Sa’Adeddin 1990).

وفي هذا السياق سوف نركز على عنصرين من قائمة سعد الدين هما: معيار التفسير وتحديد المُخاطِب والمُخاطَب (بمعنى آخر المشاركون في النص Participants):

أ- معيار التفسير Norm of interpretation

يتبين لنا من خلال العرض الذي قدمه سعد الدين في نظريته (Sa’deddin 1990) أن معيار التفسير إنما يشير إلى الأعراف الاجتماعية الثقافية التي تحكم موقف معينا تمثل في جملة أو عبارة منطوق لها بحيث يصبح فهم العبارة قاصرا بدون الرجوع إلى هذا المعيار.

ومثالنا على ذلك الآية القرآنية التالية:

“يا مريم لقد جئت شيئا فريا.  يا أخت هرون ما كان أبوك امرأ سوء وما كانت أمك بغيَّا” (مريم: 27-28)

وهنا نقف عند بعض التفاسير لنشير أهمية معيار التفسير في فهم الآية القرآنية وترجمتها:

  • · تفسير ابن كثير (تفسيرات القرآن 2007):

“أَيْ أَنْتِ مِنْ بَيْت طَيِّب طَاهِر مَعْرُوف بِالصَّلَاحِ وَالْعِبَادَة وَالزَّهَادَة فَكَيْف صَدَرَ هَذَا مِنْك قَالَ عَلِيّ بْن أَبِي طَلْحَة وَالسُّدِّيّ قِيلَ لَهَا ” يَا أُخْت هَارُون ” أَيْ أَخِي مُوسَى وَكَانَتْ مِنْ نَسْله كَمَا يُقَال لِلتَّمِيمِيِّ يَا أَخَا تَمِيم وَلِلْمِصْرِيِّ يَا أَخَا مُضَر وَقِيلَ نُسِبَتْ إِلَى رَجُل صَالِح كَانَ فِيهِمْ اِسْمه هَارُون فَكَانَتْ تُقَاس بِهِ فِي الزَّهَادَة وَالْعِبَادَة وَحَكَى اِبْن جَرِير عَنْ بَعْضهمْ أَنَّهُمْ شَبَّهُوهَا بِرَجُلٍ فَاجِر كَانَ فِيهِمْ يُقَال لَهُ هَارُون وَرَوَاهُ اِبْن أَبِي حَاتِم عَنْ سَعِيد بْن جُبَيْر”  (وزارة الشئون الاسلامية 2007)

  • تفسير الطبري:

“اِخْتَلَفَ النَّاس فِي مَعْنَى هَذِهِ الْأُخُوَّة وَمَنْ هَارُون ؟ فَقِيلَ : هُوَ هَارُون أَخُو مُوسَى ; وَالْمُرَاد مَنْ كُنَّا نَظُنّهَا مِثْل هَارُون فِي الْعِبَادَة تَأْتِي بِمِثْلِ هَذَا . وَقِيلَ : عَلَى هَذَا كَانَتْ مَرْيَم مِنْ وَلَد هَارُون أَخِي مُوسَى فَنُسِبَتْ إِلَيْهِ بِالْأُخُوَّةِ لِأَنَّهَا مِنْ وَلَده ; كَمَا يُقَال لِلتَّمِيمِيِّ : يَا أَخَا تَمِيم وَلِلْعَرَبِيِّ يَا أَخَا الْعَرَب وَقِيلَ كَانَ لَهَا أَخ مِنْ أَبِيهَا اِسْمه هَارُون ; لِأَنَّ هَذَا الِاسْم كَانَ كَثِيرًا فِي بَنِي إِسْرَائِيل تَبَرُّكًا بِاسْمِ هَارُون أَخِي مُوسَى , وَكَانَ أَمْثَل رَجُل فِي بَنِي إِسْرَائِيل ; قَالَهُ الْكَلْبِيّ . وَقِيلَ : هَارُون هَذَا رَجُل صَالِح فِي ذَلِكَ الزَّمَان تَبِعَ جِنَازَته يَوْم مَاتَ أَرْبَعُونَ أَلْفًا كُلّهمْ اِسْمه هَارُون . وَقَالَ قَتَادَة : كَانَ فِي ذَلِكَ الزَّمَان فِي بَنِي إِسْرَائِيل عَابِد مُنْقَطِع إِلَى اللَّه عَزَّ وَجَلَّ يُسَمَّى هَارُون فَنَسَبُوهَا إِلَى أُخُوَّته مِنْ حَيْثُ كَانَتْ عَلَى طَرِيقَته قَبْل ; إِذْ كَانَتْ مَوْقُوفَة عَلَى خِدْمَة الْبِيَع” (وزارة الشئون الاسلامية 2007)

ونكتفي بهذين التفسيرين تجنبا للإطالة، ولعلنا لاحظنا هنا مدى تردد المفسرين وعدم تأكدهم من معنى هذه الآية.  لكن معيار التفسير يقول لنا شيئا آخر يبدو أن سيد قطب في الظلال قد تنبه له (قطب 1996).  وعند مراجعة موسوعة Wikipedia على الانترنت عن “هارون” تبين لنا وصفا لمهام ما أسمتهم بالهارونيين أو الكوهينيين (مفرد: كوهين):

“The status of kohen was first conferred on Aaron, the brother of Moses, and his direct male descendants” (Wikipedia 2007)

أي أن أول من تلقى مهام “الكوهين” (وهو سادن الهيكل والمسئول عن أمور العبادة فيها) فهو هارون أخو سيدنا موسى عليه السلام، ليس هذا فحسب بل تقول الموسوعة أن سدانة الهيكل كانت أيضا محصورة في نسل هارون عليه السلام.  وهذه المعلومة ايضا تؤكدها موسوعة [8]Encarta.

على ضوء معيار التفسير هذا، يمكن القول أن سيد قطب  قد أحسن تفسير هذه الآية فقال:

“ثم يتحول السخط إلى تهكم مرير: …يا أخت هارون… النبي الذي تولى الهيكل هو وذريته من بعده والذي تنتسبين إليه بعبادتك وانقطاعك لخدمة الهيكل.  فيا للمفارقة بين تلك النسبة التي تنتسبينها وذلك الفعل الذي تقارفينه.”

(قطب 1996: 2307)

ب- المشاركون في الخطاب (Participants)

لا يكفي أن يعرف قارئ القرآن الكريم المخاطَب المباشر في الآيات القرآنية بل عليه أيضا أن ينتبه إلى المعنى المراد من الآيات الكريمات إذا ما وضع نفسه هو، أي المسلم، مخاطَبا مقصودا من الآية.  والافتراض بأن أي آية قرآنية كانت لها مخاطَبُها غير المباشر وهو المسلم (إذا كان المخاطَب المباش غير ذلك) يقوّيه ويدعمه أول آيات القرآن الكريم في سورة البقرة: “ألم. ذلك الكتاب لا ريب فيه هدى للمتقين” (البقرة 1-2) فهذا تصريح واضح من الله عز وجل أن القرآن كاملا إنما يخاطب الله من خلاله المسلم.

فلننظر إلى هذه الآية الكريمة ونرى المعنى الذي يمكن الوصول إليه وفقا للقاعدة المذكورة أعلاه:

“يا بني إسرائيل اذكروا نعمتي التي أنعمتها عليكم وأني فضلتكم على العالمين” (البقرة: 47)”

وأخص بالذكر تفسيري سيد قطب وابن كثير وفيهما اختلاف مدهش قد يدل على أن تفسير سيد قطب يتماشى مع عنصر المشاركين الذي ذكرناه.  فابن كثير يرى أن هذه الآية بالذات إنما لتذكير المسلمين بالأمم السالفة وكيف أن الله أنعم عليهم في الماضي، لكن ابن كثير يمضي في تفسيره إلى الخلاصة بأن التفضيل الآن قد انتقل إلى الأمة الإسلامية فيقول:

” وَيَجِب الْحَمْل عَلَى هَذَا لِأَنَّ هَذِهِ الْأُمَّة أَفْضَل مِنْهُمْ لِقَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى خِطَابًا لِهَذِهِ الْأُمَّة ” كُنْتُمْ خَيْر أُمَّة أُخْرِجَتْ لِلنَّاسِ تَأْمُرُونَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَتَنْهَوْنَ عَنْ الْمُنْكَر وَتُؤْمِنُونَ بِاَللَّهِ وَلَوْ آمَنَ أَهْل الْكِتَاب لَكَانَ خَيْرًا لَهُمْ ” وَفِي الْمَسَانِيد وَالسُّنَن عَنْ مُعَاوِيَة بْن حَيْدَة الْقُشَيْرِيّ . قَالَ : قَالَ رَسُول اللَّه صَلَّى اللَّه عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ” أَنْتُمْ تُوفُونَ سَبْعِينَ أُمَّة أَنْتُمْ خَيْرهَا وَأَكْرَمهَا عَلَى اللَّه ” وَالْأَحَادِيث فِي هَذَا كَثِيرَة”[9] (وزارة الشئون الاسلامية 2007)

لكن سيد قطب في مقدمة شرحه لمجموعة الآيات التي تتحدث عن بني اسرائيل والخلافة والتفضيلن فكأنه شعر بأمر المخاطب غير المباشر ألا وهو المسلم، فقال:

“”ومن جانب آخر كانت ضرورية لتحذير المسلمين من مزالق الطريق التي عثرت فيها أقدام الأمم المستخلفة قبلهم فحرمت مقام الخلافة وسلبت على شرف القيام علا أمانة الله في الأرض ومنهجه لقيادة البشر وقد تخللت هذه الحملة توجيهات ظاهرة وخفية للمسلمين لتحذيرهم من تلك المزالق…” (قطب 1996: 65)

أي أن المعنى الإضافي هو أن الله فضل أمة من الأمم من قبل لالتزامها بعهد الله، لكن هذه الأمة لم تلتزم بعهدها، فزال عنها التفضيل وهكذا ينطبق عليك الأمر أيها المسلم فلا تظنن أن الله مفضلك على العالمين إن لم تكن ملتزما بعهده.

رابعا- الخلاصة والتوصيات:

سعى الباحث في هذه الورقة إلى تسليط الضوء على بعض مبادئ نظريات الترجمة الواردة في كتب نظريات الترجمة وعلاقتها مع آيات القرآن الكريم.  وتبين من خلال بعض الأمثلة أن هنالك فائدة كبيرة تتأتى أولا عند النظر إلى الآيات القرآنية من وجهة نظر أصحاب نظريات الترجمة، وثانيا في قيام أصحاب نظريات الترجمة بالإشارة إلى آيات القرآن الكريم الزاخرة والمعجزة في بلاغتها.

وحيث أن الورقة البحثية لا يمكن لها أن تغطي الكثير من الآيات القرآنية وفقا لكافة العناصر الواردة في نظريات الترجمة، يوصي الباحاث إجراء دراسات قادمة حول بعض القضايا التي تتضمن على سبيل المثال لا الحصر ما يلي:

1-   نظرية Text Acts Theory (الأفعال النصية) وطريقة توظيفها في تفسير القرآن لسيد قطب (في ظلال القرآن)

2-   توظيف نظريات الترجمة لكشف التأثير الإيديولوجي للمسلمين وغير المسلمين على عملهم أثناء ترجمتهم للقرآن الكريم

3-   دراسة نظريات الـ Felicity Conditions والـ Grice’s Maxims وغير ذلك بالرجوع إلى الآيات القرآنية وتحليلها.

4-   عقد مؤتمر علمي لمناقشة مشكلات تفسير القرآن الكريم وفهمه وفقا لنظريات الترجمة

5-   تدريس قواعد نظريات الترجمة لطلبة الشريعة وللمهتمين في تعلم القرآن الكريم وتفسيره


الفرضية (1)

كل سورة تدور حول فكرة أساسية ولمعرفة هذه الفكرة يجب إدراك معنى أول عشر آيات تقريبا وآخر عشر آيات تقريبا من السورة المذكورة.  وفقا لذلك، تدور الفكرة الأساسية لسورة البقرة حول “الإيمان بالله سبحانه وتعالى”.

افتراض:وفقا لمبدأ “وحدة النص” في اللغة، فإن أي عبارة أو جملة ترد في النص إنما ترتبط ارتباطا مباشرا بالفكرة الرئيسية، فلو أخذنا أي آية من سورة البقرة لكان من الواجب تفسيرها على ضوء هذه الفكرة الأساسية.

مثال: “إن الله يأمركم أن تذبحوا بقرة” تحمل من معانيها المعنى التالي: “على المؤمن بالله أن سلم بأمر الله وينفذه دون أي تردد ودون سؤال”.

الفرضية (2)

يجب على قارئ القرآن أن يكون مضطلعا على التغيرات المعرفية الحاصلة في كل عصر وأن يواكب هذه التطورات ليتمكن من فهم الآية القرآنية بشكل أفضل.

مثال: “والأرض مددناها” وفقا للعلوم الحديثة تتوافق مع العلم الحديث في أن الأرض “كروية” وذلك لأن الأرض ممدودة أمامك على مج البصر إلى خط الأفق وكلما مشيت بقيت الأرض ممدودة وهذا لا يمكن حدوثه إلا إذا كانت الأرض كروية.

نفس الفرضية تنطبق على “وكل شيء خلقناه بقدر” حيث سيتمكن قارئ القرآن من فهم هذه الأية الكريمة في حال أنه عرف تكوين الغازات في الغلاف الجوي للأرض فلو ازداد الأكسجين قليلا لاحترق الناس ولو ازداد النتروجين قليلا لاختنق الناس. (حقيقة علمية)

افتراض: يتأثر معنى الآية القرآنية في ذهن القارئ عند تفاعلها مع الذاكرة الخبروية.

الفرضية (3)

تشير نظريات الترجمة إلى ضرورة الانتباه إلى الضمير (وما يحل محله) وما يشير إليه، وينطبق الأمر على قارئ القرآن الكريم حيث يجب عليه ربط الضمير مع الفكرة التي يعود عليها ليصل إلى فهم صحيح لآيات القرآن.  والأمثلة كثيرة جدا نكتفي بما يلي:

1-   “مثلهم كمثل الذي استوقد نارا فلما أضاءت ما حوله ذهب الله بنورهم” هنا الضمير في “استوقد” يعود على نفس ما يعود عليه الضمير في “نورهم”.  هذا هو المعنى الأول، لكن على متدبر الآية الكريمة أن ينتبه إلى التغيير في المفرد والجمع وهذا يشير إلى إعجاز القرآن اللغوي فكأنما الذي وضع هذه الآية (الله عز وجل) يستخدم اللغة العربية بكل إمكاناتها وبمهارة عالية يعجز عنها البشر رغم وجود اللغة العربية بين أبنائها، وهذا من ناحية أخرى يشير إلى تفسير “ألم” حيث أن هذه الأحرف العربية في متناول يد الجميع لكن الله يتحدى أفصح فصحائهم في مجال استخدامها، وهذا مجرد مثال بسيط حول نقل الفكرة من المفرد إلى الجمع بسرعة ويسر وسلاسة.

2-   “أما السفينة فكانت لمساكين”  يستدل من هذه الآية قاعدة فقهية هي أن المسكين حالته المادية أفضل من الفقير، فالمساكين يملكون سفينة.

3-   “ذلك ليعلم أني لم أخنه في الغيب” من الضروري الانتباه إلى إشارات الضمير في سورة يوسف حيث أن الآية السابقة كانت بلسان امرأة العزيز أما هذه الآية فهي على لسان سيدنا يوسف عليه السلام.  أي أن الضمير في “أخنه” يعود على سيدنا يوسف عليه السلام.

4-   “وقال الذين لا يعلمون مثل قولهم” من المهم ملاحظة أن “الذين لا يعلمون” إنما هي عبارة عن إشارة تدل على “المشركين الوثنيين” الذين لا كتاب سماوي لهم.

الفرضية (4)

التقديم والتأخير أداتان بلاغيتان وفي حال استخدامهما يتغير المعنى أو أن معنىً مبطنا يضاف إلى الآية الكريمة.

1-   “فهزموهم بإذن الله وقتل داود جالوت”.  يجب على من يتلوا هذه الآيات أن ينتبه إلى التأخير والتقديم في سرد القصة فمن المنطقي أن يقول المرء: وتمكن داود من قتل جالوت وخرت عزيمة الأعداء فهزم المؤمنون جيشَ الكفار بإذن الله وانتهت القصة بانتصار المؤمنين.  لكن تأخير قضية قتل داود لجالوت تنطوي على أمر هام ويمكن رواية القصة وفقا للآية الكريمة كما يلي: “وانتهت الحرب بانهزام الكافرين رغم ضآلة حجم جيش المؤمنين, ونتعلم درسا هاما من هذه القصة وهو أن الصبي داود على صغر سنه قتل كبير الكفار جالوت وهذا يعني أن الإيمان بالله هو أكبر قوة على وجه الأرض”.

وفي نفس السياق، يجب على القارئ أن يعتبر أن التقديم والتأخير هنا هو رد من الله تعالى على بعض الجنود من جيش طالوت الذين قالوا: “لا طاقة لنا اليوم بجالوت وجنوده” ويجب أن يعتبر أن التقديم والتأخير هنا هو تعزيز لقول المؤمنين “كم من فئة قليلة هزمت فئة كثيرة بإذن الله”.

2-   مرة أخرى نعود إلى فرضية سابقة ونقول أن على القارئ أن يدرك أن معاني الآيات السابقة الخاصة بنصر جيش طالوت تدور حول الفكرة الرئيسية لسورة البقرة وهي “ضرورة الإيمان بالله” أي أن إحدى وظائف الآيات الكريمات الخاصة بطالوت وجالوت هي: “ضرب مثال على أهمية وكيفية الإيمان بالله”.

الفرضية (5)

من المهم جدا أن ينتبه قارئ القرآن الكريم إلى مواطن الحذف ويدرك الوظيفة المعنوية التي يؤديها الحذف علما بأن الحذف هو من الأدوات البلاغية:

“أئذا متنا وكنا ترابا ذلك رجع بعيد” يوجد حذف في هذه الآية والقصد أن يقول الكافرون: أئذا كنا ترابا أئنا لمبعوثون، ذلك رجع بعيد.  جاء الحذف ليؤدي معنىً إضافيا وهو أن الكافرين متعجبين كل العجب لدرجة أنهم استبعدوا يوم الحساب فلم يكملوا التفكير في ما يحدث بعد “ترابا” إذن المعنى المتأتي من عملية الحذف هذه هو “تعجب الكافرين وتفكيرهم في أنه لأمر غير وارد بتاتا حتى مجرد التفكير في ما جاء به القرآن عن  يوم البعث.

الفرضية (6)

تحمل أدوات التماسك اللفظي (مثل: و، أو الخ) معان هامة جدا لا يمكن تجاوزها.  أمثلة ذلك:

المثال الأول:

“وسيق الذين اتقوا ربهم إلى الجنة زمرا حتى إذا جاؤوها وفتحت أبوابها…..”

“وسيق الذين كفروا إلى جهنم زمرا حتى إذا جاؤوها فتحت أبوابها….”

حرف الواو في الأية الأولى يدل على وجود فترة زمنية سحيقة بين تجمع المؤمنين عند أبواب الجنة وفتح الأبواب، ويمكن الاستدلال من الأحاديث الصحيحة أن المؤمنين يجتمعون عند أبواب الجنة إلى أن يأتي سيدنا محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم لكي يستأذن بالدخول فيؤذن له فيكون أول من يدخلها.

المثال الثاني:

“إن الله عنده علم الساعة وينزل الغيث ويعلم ما في الأرحام وما تدري نفس ماذا تكسب غدا وما تدري نفس بأي أرض تموت”

هنالك فرق بين “ما” و “من” وهذا الفرق يرتبط ارتباطا وثيقا مع الفرق بين “الرحم” و “الأرحام” ولو كانت الكلمة “من” و “الرحم” لكان المعنى أن الله يعرف إذا كان من في الرحم ذكر أم أنثى، لكن المعنى المتأتي من الآية الكريمة هو أن الله يعلم كل ما يدور في عالم الأرحام وأن عالم الأرحام هو من العلوم الغيبية شأنها شأن عالم الأحياء وعالم الأموات وعالم الأرواح، حيث أن الله وحده يعلم هل الجنين الذي نفخت فيه الروح سعيد أم شقي الخ. كما ورد في الحديث الصحيح.

الفرضية (7):

ما من آيتين تأتيان الواحدة تلو الأخرى إلا وكان هنالك معنى مشترك بينهما.  مثال:

أ- “أعوذ بالله من الشيطان الرجيم”

“بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم”

يبدأ المسلم القرآن بالاستعاذة والبسملة.  ولو تخيلنا وجود علاقة مباشرة بينهما لكان بالإمكان استنتاج ما يلي: يستعيذ المؤمن بالله من شر الشيطان وسلاح المؤمن في البعد عن الشيطان هو الرحمة وقول بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم.  ويؤيد ذلك ورود حديث عن الرسول الكريم صلى الله عليه وسلم نهى فيه الصحابي المرافق له عن أن يقول “تعس الشيطان” بل أرشده أن يقول “بسم الله”.[10]

ب- ” وإذ ابتلى إبراهيم ربه بكلمات فأتمهن قال إني جاعلك للناس إماما قال ومن ذريتي قال لا ينال عهدي الظالمين” و ” وإذ قال إبراهيم رب اجعل هذا بلدا آمنا وارزق أهله من الثمرات من آمن منهم بالله واليوم الآخر قال ومن كفر فأمتعه قليلا ثم أضطره إلى عذاب النار وبئس المصير”

المعنى المضاف لهاتين الآيتين هو أن سيدنا ابراهيم عليه السلام “تلميذ نجيب” الله تعالى معلمه، حيث أنه في الآية الثانية تعلم من الله تعالى أن الكافرين لا عهد لهم مع الله فخصص دعاءه بـ “..من آمن بالله واليوم الآخر” لكن الله يعلمه مرة أخرى أنه في الأرزاق الله تعالى يرزق الكافر والمؤمن على حد سواء وأنه يمهل المرء في الحياة الدنيا لكن يذيقه عذاب جهنم في الآخرة إن مات على الكفر.

الفرضية (8)

يجب على من يتلو القرآن مراعاة الذاكرة الخبروية لدى المجتمعات الأخرى عند الضرورة.  ونعني بالذاكرة الخبروية المعلومات المتعلقة بتاريخ شعب ما وثقافته وتقاليده والتي يمكن أن تؤثر على طبيعة النص. مثال توضيحي: لو قلت لشخص مغربي “يعطيك العافية” فسينصدم منك ويقول لماذا تدعو علي؟ لأن كلمة العافية لديهم معناها “المرض” وهذا الاختلاف يعني اختلاف الذاكرة الخبروية.

ورد في القرآن الكريم الآية التالية: “يا أخت هرون ما كان أبوك امرأ سوء وما كانت أمك بغيا”

ما دام أن الخطاب بين مريم بنت عمران وبني إسرائيل فينبغي على القارئ العودة إلى تاريخ بني إسرائيل لفهم الذاكرة الخبروية لديهم وفهم الآية الكريمة.  يقول التاريخ أن مريم بنت عمران لم يكن لديها أخ اسمه هرون، لكن موسوعة الانتكارتا مثلا وغيرها من كتب أهل الكتاب تنص صراحة على أن التوراة كانت لموسى وأبنائه من بعده أما المعبد فكان لأخيه هرون ولأبنائه من بعده. وبالتالي وحيث أن هرون هو المسؤول الأول عن المعبد الذي كانت مريم تعبد فيه ربها فيصبح معنى الآية: “يا مريم، يا من تنتسبين إلى هرون النبي بعبادتك الله في معبده…..” علما أن كلمة “أخت” تشير عند أهل الكتاب إلى الراهبة.

الفرضية (9):

من الضروري على قارئ القرآن أن ينتبه إلى الأفعال الكلامية التي تحملها الآيات الكريمة، مثل:

“قالت نملة: يا أيها النمل ادخلوا مساكنكم لا يحطمنكم سليمان وجنوده وهم لا يشعرون” وفقا لنظرية الأفعال الكلامية فقد قامت النملة بما يلي:

أ- يا: نادت   ب- أيها: نبَّهت   ج- النمل: خصصت   د- ادخلوا مساكنكم: أمرت   ه-سليمان: حددت  و-جنوده: عمَّمت    ز-وهم لا يشعرون: اعتذرت

الفرضية (10)

تشير نظرية الـ felicity conditions إلى بعض المعايير الكلامية ومنها معيار الكم Quality بمعنى أنك إذا ما تحدثت إلى أحد وأجابك بذكر معلومات أكثر مما طلبت فيجب أن يكون لذلك معنى ضمنيا.

ورد في القرآن الآيات الكريمة التالية:

“وما تلك بيمينك يا موسى * قال هي عصاي أتوكأ عليها وأهش بها على غنمي ولي فيها مآرب أخرى”

كان السؤال عن العصا فلماذا لم تكن الإجابة “عصا” ولماذا “ولي فيها مآرب أخرى”؟ يدل ذلك على أن سيدنا موسى يشعر بالأمان بالحديث مع رب العالمين فزاد ببعض التفاصيل لكي يستمر بالكلام الدافئ مع خالقه، لكنه ما لبث أن اختصر خشية أن يكون ذلك قلة ذوق منه في حضرة رب العالمين.

الفرضية (11):

يجب على قارئ القرآن أن يدرك خصائص النص من حيث المُخاطِب والمخَاطَب ويجب أن يدرك ما يُسمى في علم اللغة بالوظائف النصية أو Text Acts وارتباط هذه الوظائف النصية مع بعضها البعض، والتركيز على أن هذه العلاقات النصية الوظيفية تختلف باختلاف المخاطِب والمخاطِب.  مثال:

يختلف فهم سورة الفاتحة الكريمة باختلاف زاوية النظر إليها كما يلي:


أ- المُخاطِب: الله عز وجل

ب- المخَاطَب: المؤمنون

ج- الغرض:  تلقين المؤمنين

د- وسط الرسالة:  مكتوب على أنه محكي

هنا يكون التحليل اللغوي العرقي كما يلي:

التسلسل العبارة/الآية الوظيفة النصية
1 أعوذ بالله من الشيطان الرجيم تنبيه إلى العدو الحقيقي للبشرية
2 بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم إرشاد إلى طريق النجاة من الشيطان
3 سورة الفاتحة كاملة تلقين المؤمنين طريقة اللجوء إلى الله(ويكرر هذا الدعاء 17 مرة على الأقل في اليوم)


أ- المُخاطِب: المؤمنون

ب- المخَاطَب: الله عز وجل

ج- الغرض:  دعاء الله أن ينعم عليهم باتباع الصراط المستقيم

د- وسط الرسالة: مكتوب على أنه محكي

العبارة/الآية الوظيفة النصية
أعوذ بالله من الشيطان الرجيم

تسلسل 1: مقدمة للسورة كاملة
إعلان اللجوء إلى الله وحده في محاربة الشيطان
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم استهلال الدعاء بالرحمة لطرد الشيطان
تسلسل 2: تمجيد وثناء (مقدمة للتسلسل 3)

الحمد لله رب العالمين

حمد الله والثناء عليه
الرحمن الرحيم وصف مقام الألوهية بالرحمة التي لا نظير لها في الوجود
ملك يوم الدين تمجيد الله تعالى بأنه صاحب الأمر يوم القيامة
إياك نعبد وإياك نستعين إقرار بالعيودية المطلقة لله تعالى
إهدنا الصراط المستقيم

تسلسل 3: الدعاء (صلب الموضوع)
دعاء الله لتلبية أهم حاجة من حاجات المؤمن في الحياة الدنيا (وهنا القصد الأساسي من قراءة السورة التي يتكرر الدعاء بها 17 مرة على الأقل في اليوم الواحد)
تسلسل 4: الخاتمة

صراط الذين أنعمت عليهم

توضيح عبارة “الصراط المستقيم” للاستئناس بالحديث مع رب العالمين ولإنهاء الدعاء بشكل لائق
غير المغضوب عليهم
ولا الضالين


المُخاطِب: الله سبحانه وتعالى

المُخَاطَب: قارئ القرآن

الغرض: مقدمة لسور القرآن الكريم كافة وكأن الله عز وجل يرشد المؤمن أن القرآن الكريم بسوره وأحكامه هي الاستجابة لدعاء المؤمن بالمشي في الصراط المستقيم.

وسط الرسالة: مكتوب ليتم قراءته

التسلسل العبارة/الآية/السورة الوظيفة النصية
1 أعوذ بالله من الشيطان الرجيم + سورة الفاتحة مقدمة- مع التركيز على:1-   الاستعاذة بالله تعالى من العدو اللدود للبشرية ألا وهو الشيطان المطرود من رحمة الله

2-   التركيز على أن الهدف من تلاوة القرآن هو أن يسترشد المؤمن بسور القرآن الكريم وأحكامه لكي يسير على الصراط المستقيم

2 سور القرآن الكريم توضيح للصراط المستقيم وطريق الهداية الحق
3 سورة الناس خاتمة القرآن الكريم وتلخيص بطريقة مختلفة لفكرة أساسية وهي العداوة ما بين الشيطان والإنسان وأن الذي ينجي الإنسان من الشيطان إنما هو الله عز وجل

فمثلا، عندما يقول الله عز وجل “ولا تقربوا الزنا” فإن الغاية من ذلك وفقا للمقدمة القرآنية إنما هي أن يضع المسلم على الصراط المستقيم.

وفقا للتحليل اللغوي السابق توصل الباحث إلى بعض الإضاءات التفسيرية للسورة الكريمة:

1-   نعلم أن أحد ابني آدم قتل أخاه لكنه لم يعرف كيف يواري سوءة أخيه حتى رأى الطير يواري طيرا آخر مما يعني أن الإنسان لا حول له ولا قوة دون إرشاد إلهي له.  وبالمثل، المؤمن لا يعرف كيف يمكن له التقرب إلى الله بالطريقة الصحيحة ولا يدرك حقيقة أهم أمر في حياته ليدعوا الله به، بمعنى أن المؤمن لو فتحت له أبواب السماء وكانت ساعة استجابة لدعائه فقد يدعوا المؤمن أن يعطيه الله سيارة أو بيتا أو مالا وبنين أو قد يدعو الله الجنة والنجاة من النار.  لذلك جاءت سورة الفاتحة تلقينا للمؤمن في كيفية الدعاء بحيث يحقق خير الدنيا وينال نعيم الآخرة: “إهدنا الصراط المستقيم” فإذا ما سار المؤمن في الصراط المستقيم فاز بالدنيا وفاز بالآخرة.

2-   يلقن الله عز وجل المؤمن كيفية مخاطبة الله تعالى بأدب، فالدعاء فيه مقدمة وثناء على الله ومن ثم الدعاء بما شاء ومن ثم الخاتمة وهذا من باب التأدب في حضرة ملك الملوك (ملك يوم الدين) فقد لا يليق مثلا أن يقول العبد لله عز وجل جون أي مقدمات: “أعطني مالا وأولادا” فليتخيل المرء نفسه بين يدي الوزير وأنه يريد منه قضاء حاجة، فلا شك في أنه سيبدأ بمقدمة طويلة يمدحه فيها ومن ثم يقدم طلبه وبعد ذلك يشكره على استماعه له، فما بالك بدعاء رب العالمين.  ومن طرق التقرب إلى الله تعالى استذكار صفات الحق كالرحمة والرحمانية وكذلك إقرار ربوبيته وملكه ليوم الثواب والعقاب.

3-   تشير السنة الشريفة إلى وجوب قراءة سورة الفاتحة 17 مرة على الأقل في اليوم والليلة مما يؤكد على أهمية هذا الدعاء وأهمية ألا يحيد المرء عن الصراط المستقيم وأن العدو الرئيسي للإنسان (من خلال أعوذ بالله من الشيطان الرجيم، بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم) إنما هو الشيطان فهو العدو الأول والآخر ويجب على الإنسان أن يلجأ إلى الله الرحمن الرحيم فيطرد عنه الشيطان برحمة الله تعالى، فالشيطان مطرود من رحمة الله وحيث يوجد رحمة لا يوجد الشيطان.

4-   تشير السورة الكريمة إلى انقسام البشر إلى ثلاث طوائف: 1- المؤمنين الذين أنعم الله عليهم باتباعهم الصراط المستقيم و2- المغضوب عليهم الذين رأوا الصراط المستقيم وعرفوه لكنهم تعنتوا ورفضوا اتباعه و3- الذين رأوا الصراط المستقيم ومشوا فيه لكنهم ما لبثوا أ، حادوا عنه ثم ضلوا الطريق ثم ضاعوا في التيه ثم عمهوا في ضلالتهم.

5-   من النقطة (4) نستنتج أنه من الخطأ تقسيم البشر إلى غير الفئات المذكورة أعلاه: فلا عربي-أعجمي ولا أبيض-أسود ولا ذكر-أنثى بل أن الفرق بين اثنين من البشر إنما في: مؤمن-ضال.  (ويقوي هذه الفرضية ما ورد في الحديث الصحيح في هذا الشأن).

الفرضية (12)

يمكن الحصول على المعنى المضاف من خلال مقارنة بعض الآيات التي قد تستخدم أساليب قواعدية وبلاغية متعارضة.  مثال:

أ- “وإذا قال ربك للملائكة إني جاعل في الأرض خليفة، قالوا أتجعل فيها من يفسد فيها ويسفك الدماء ونحن نسبح بحمدك ونقدس لك قال إني أعلم ما لا تعلمون وعلم آدم الأسماء كلها ثم عرضهم على الملائكة فقال أنبئوني بأسماء هؤلاء إن كنتم صادقين قالوا سبحانك لا علم لنا إلا ما علمتنا إنك أن الحكيم العليم قال يا آدم أنبئهم بأسمائهم فلما أنبأهم بأسمائهم قال ألم أقل لكم أني أعلم غيب السموات والأرض وأعلم ما تبدون ما كنتم تكتمون”

ب- “وقيل يا أرض ابلعي ماءك ويا سماء أقلعي وغيض الماء وقضي الأمر واستوت على الجودي وقيل بعدا للقوم الظالمين”

تشير النظرية الشكلانية الروسية في الأدب[11] أنه إذا ما أردت إبراز أهمية حدث ما فإنك تطيل القصة، كما في الآيات في (أ) لكنك تختصر الكلام، إذا لم يكن الحديث مهما كما في الأية في (ب)، ومن الناحية اللغوية فإن استخدام المبني للمجهول قد يعني تفاهة الأمر المتحدث عنه كما في حادثة الطوفان في الآية (ب) لكن استخدام المبني للمعلوم في الآيات (أ) يعني أهمية الحدث.  وهنالك عامل آخر وهو أن الآيات (أ) تذكر رد الملائكة لكن في الآية (ب) لا يوجد رد للأرض ولا للسماء وكأن المقصود من الآية (ب) أن من هي هذه الأرض أو تلك السماء حتى تقول نعم أو لا لأمر رب العالمين!

بمقارنة هذه الأدوات البلاغية بين التسلسلين من الآيات المذكورات يتبين لنا المعنى المضاف التالي:

خلق آدم وخلافته في الأرض هو حدث جلل بل هو الحدث الجلل في تاريخ الوجود

ثبت المراجع:

المراجع العربية:

1-      الحمد، نايف. الاستعاذة: حكم وأحكام. مسترجع عن الانترنت من http://www.islamtoday.net/questions/show_articles_content.cfm?id=24&catid=202&artid=8838#2 بتاريخ 20 آذار 2007

2-   القرآن الكريم

3-   قطب، سيد. 1996. في ظلال القرآن. دار الشروق.بيروت

4-   موقع روح الإسلام. موسوعة الحديث الشريف، الإصدار الثاني. نسخة حاسوبية، استرجاع من www.islamspirit.com بتاريخ 20/3/2007

5-   وزارة الشئون الإسلامية والأوقاف والدعوة والإرشاد. تفاسير القرآن الكريم (ابن كثير، الجلالين، الطبري، القرطبي) المملكة العربية السعودية. مسترجع عن الانترنت بتاريخ 13/3/2007، عن: http://quran.al-islam.com/Tafseer

المراجع الأجنبية:

1-     Baker, M. 1995. In Other Words. Routledge. London.

2-      De Beaugrande, R. and Dressler. 1981. Introduction to Text Lingusitics. Retrieved from www.beaugrande.com on September 12, 2006

3-       Hatim, B. and Mason, I. 1997. Discourse and the Translator. Longman. London.

4-       Sa’Adeddin M. (1990). “Towards a Viable Applied Linguistic Theory of Translation: An Ethnolinguistic Point of View”, Translation in Performance. Ed. Fawcet, P., Heathcote, O. University of Bradford. London..

5-     Sale, G. 1940. The Koran. Frederick Warne & Co LTD. London

6-      Wikipedia (The Free Encyclopedia)Kohen retrieved on 11/3/2007 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kohen

[1]للاطلاع على عرض عام لنظريات التطابق، التي تشكل واحدة من أهم عناصر نظريات الترجمة، راجع الملخص الموجود بالانجليزية على الشبكة العنكوبنية بالنقر على الرابط التالي:  http://aburisha.tripod.com/man/equivalence.html

[2] “O Men of Mecca!” (Sale 1940:4)

[3] تعرض عبد الله يوسف علي، مترجم معاني القرآن الكريم، إلى هجوم كبير من بعض علماء اللغة يتهمونه بأنه أدخل عقيدته في الترجمة بطرق حرَّفت المعنى الحقيقي للآيات القرآنية.  لتفاصيل حول هذا الموضوع انظر: ندوة عناية المملكة العربية السعودية بالقرآن الكريم و علومه (1421هـ/2000م : المدينة المنورة), عبدالرحمن , وجيه حمد. مجمع الملك فهد لطباعة المصحف الشريف، 1421 هـ 2000 م

[4] راجع:

Abu-Risha, M. 2005. Towards more efficient courses of translation. Atlas Journal for Studies and Research, ed. Suleiman Al-Abbas. Amman

Abu-Risha. M.2006. Written and electronic resources for self-training translators. Atlas Journal for Studies and Research. Ed. Suleiman Al-Abbas. Amman

[5] صدر مثلا كتاب يعنوان “زوال إسرائيل عام 2022” وفيه نوع من الحسابات الرياضية يقول صاحبها أنها صحيحة وأنها تعطي التاريخ الدقيق لزوال دولة إسرائيل.  لكننا نرى أن الهدف من القرآن هو التعامل مع الحاضر والتعلم من الماضي والتحضير للمستقبل لا التنبؤ به.

[6] انظر كتاب:Muqattash, L. 1995. Structure II. Al-Quds Open University. Amman.


[8] راجع مقالة Aaron في موسوعة Microsoft Encarta 2004

[9] انظر تفسيير الآية في تفسير ابن كثير على الرابط التالي:  http://quran.al-islam.com/Tafseer


[11] Selden, R. 1985. Reader’s Guide to Contemporary Literary Theory. The Harvester Press. Liverpool

مصادر التعلم الذاتي للمترجم

Written and Electronic Resources for Self-Training Translators:

An eye-opening for translator trainees in Jordan

Mohammed Y. Abu-Risha

Perhaps it would not be far from the truth if we claim that a fresh translation student would likely rely in learning translation skills solely on the instructor and the bilingual dictionary.  This is at least a fact that it seems to be prevalent in many universities where I taught translation courses.

Let us put aside the academia for a while and head for the translation market.  Many recruiters of translators in Jordan have complained that applicants, who graduated from translation departments, failed to give an acceptable translation, with the term “acceptable” measured by the extent to which the editor of a translation has to work in correcting the mistakes in that given translation.

The present paper addresses self-training resources on the assumption that a student should not expect to get everything from the university.  These resources will be tackled for the purpose of this paper and will be divided into two types: electronic and written.  This is therefore an “eye-opener” exercise, which, once mastered by the translation student, he will be able to translate.

I will kindly ask you to pardon my resort to personal experience here and there in this paper.  While research papers are supposed to be made under rigid measures, somehow disregarding subjectivity, it is necessary to point out that personal experience is the touchstone upon which the validity of all research is gauged.

0.  Initial Remarks [1]

I wish from the outset to express my thanks to Atlas Global Centre represented by Mr. Ghassan Al-Deeb, Chairman of the Board of Directors, for their initiative and unprecedented blessed move in holding this series of conferences to discuss matters pertaining to translation and lexicography.  I thank also Dr. Suleiman Al-Abbas, Atlas”s Manager General for steering the organization of this remarkable event and for inviting me to present a paper on translation.

It is good here, I feel, to underscore and hail the essential role that the private sector can play in developing translation as a discipline and as a career.  In fact, the promotion of translation studies and profession requires us academicians to cooperate with the private sector in building up efficient translators.  Unfortunately, the present position of translators and translation is so gloomy and with many failing attempts to regulate the translation profession due to two main reasons.  First, students of translation, who, supposedly, later on become translators, do not seem to fully understand that translating a document or even a simple phrase is not a dictionary work alone.  The second factor is that our universities seem to have few connections with the translation market and corporations, if at all.  What raises the eyebrow is that in the promotion literature of universities, the overtly expressed goal for offering BAs in translation, is to “supply the market with efficient translators”, with the paradox being that such a slogan has not materialised in better relations with public institutions and private enterprises.  Let me therefore from the very beginning suggest that you include in the recommendations the establishment and the boosting of ties of cooperation between academia and the private sector on the one hand, and among translation companies on the other hand.

1. Introduction

Once I watched a famous film about the Roman Empire called “The Gladiator” in which the Emperor wants to change the victorious empire into a Republic for fear, as he told his awkward son, that upon his death all Roman victories will be lost because the Emperor”s son was not skilful enough to preserve the nation.  The son who strived for the throne cried and said that he did all his best to make his father happy with him but he was always a failure.  The emperor replied “You don”t understand.  Your failure as a son is my failure as a father!”

The same applies to us, translation teachers.  “Their failure as students is our failure as teachers!”  A typical instructor of translation courses may either underestimate or overestimate his students with either practice resulting in misleading the student to what translation is exactly about.  Are there any resources for self-training in translation?  Are there any tangible steps to be used by the trainee that would ultimately secure for him the coveted title “translator” or “interpreter”?

The answer is yes.  Translation resources however are not used effectively, and my evidence is the fact that the qualified translators and interpreters in Jordan can be counted by the fingers of the one hand, following the Arabic saying.

Translation is not only a talent.  It is a skill that can be learnt, improved and even lost [2].  In order for one to be a good translator, it is imperative that he relies on rich resources.  Without resources, it would be almost impossible, in my opinion, for a trainee translator to practically give an error-free translation. [3]

From my experience as a translator, interpreter and instructor of translation courses, it seems to me that rarely do students know anything about translation resources, and the very few who have access to such resources do not use them appropriately.  And, this is the problem to be tackled here.

This presentation is intended to complement a previous paper that I submitted at Yarmouk University 17th international conference on literature, linguistics and translation.  In that paper, the main concern was how to teach translation.  Now, it is how to let students develop self-learning strategies of translation.  We need, in this regard, to emphasize that the word “learning” has been intentionally used to denote the on-going process marked by the learning of translation.

I will first define translation resources then divide them mainly into two categories: electronic resources and written resources.  Under electronic resources, the discussion is going to be based on dictionaries, encyclopedias and online resources.  As for written resources, MA theses on translation, and economic and legal documents will be examined.

2. Translation Resources

2.1. Definition

For the purpose of this paper, I will mean by “the translator’s resources” all the body of knowledge and instruments available for the translator in either media: written and electronic to help the translator perform his tasks efficiently and effectively.  Resources are not restricted to dictionaries and encyclopedias.  They cover any resource that would bring insight into the translator’s task.  A digital camera catalogue, in view of the above account, is an example of a good resource for a translator in charge of doing some translation job on digital photography.

For purposes of brevity, the electronic resources will discuss both materials available on CDs and online.

2. 2. CDs and Online Electronic Dictionaries and Encyclopedias

A typical Arab student admitted to an English department at some local university (let me say in Jordan, my country, for example) would face a problem in finding the right path leading him to the mastery of the language he/she has chosen to learn.  Typical problems that a freshman, at the English/translation department here in Jordan, faces would be related to learning new vocabulary, guessing the meaning of new words he/she encounters while reading a piece of English written material or translating from English into Arabic and vice versa.

I have taught courses in translation, reading, communication skills, paragraph writing and oral skills for a number of years at some Jordanian universities.  All these courses demanded the students to work hard in (1) learning new vocabulary, and (2) using the learnt vocabulary idiomatically in their proper context.  To tell the truth, it seems that the majority of our students, at least at the universities where I taught, were almost all the time astray knowing not how to learn a new word or use it idiomatically.  Worse, they did not know how to make use of technology, beginning with the written dictionary to the computerized translation programs in solving their problem with words.

Being a teacher of translation and conscious of this problem, I found it appropriate here to suggest a way that would lead the students concerned to their goal in translation and vocabulary development.  The hope from the present discussion is that students would find learning English and solving vocabulary-related problems both beneficial and entertaining.

The vocabulary problem is twofold.  It pertains to the type of dictionary a student should use and the way a dictionary should be used.

2.2.1 Which Dictionary

As it is commonly known, a dictionary could be either monolingual or bilingual.  Which dictionary should a student choose: a monolingual or a bilingual?  To answer this question, let us review a number of dictionaries to see how these can be utilized to the best.  Al-Mawrid Electronic Dictionary (A computerized version) updated every year since 1999

  1. Components:
    1. The same material (entries and their paraphrases) of the written versions of Al-Mawrid Dictionary (Arabic-English) and Al-Mawrid (English-Arabic).  A specialised linguistic dictionary is also incorporated.
    2. Recorded pronunciation for every entry (in English and in Arabic).
    3. Pictorial illustrations for some entries
  2. Information Related Features:
    1. Vowelisation for Arabic words in the Arabic-English dictionary is available.  Vowelisation of some Arabic words in the other dictionary is also provided.
    2. The English-Arabic dictionary gives all possible senses (to the best of my knowledge) of an entry.
    3. Idioms are observed in both dictionaries.  This would be helpful in making a learner perceive as an idiom a group of words in certain contexts.
    4. Tags are given for words that belong to special registers (such as medicine).  This feature is available only in the English-Arabic dictionary.
    5. Tags are given to indicate the class of English words (just the English-Arabic dictionary)
  1. Technical Features:

These features are really interesting.  They save much time and make the computerized versions of Al-Mawrid dictionaries far distinct from the conventional written ones:

    1. The program that runs the dictionaries can be stored on the computer hard disk, which means easier accessible to the dictionary and quicker search results.
    2. Moving between the two dictionaries is easy.  Just click the dictionary you want to use, then immediately you can enter the word you are looking up.  It is good here to notice that if you type a part of a word or if you misspell a word, the program will give you the closest match.
    3. The program gives you choices to display in front of you from both dictionaries (English-Arabic and Arabic-English) as shown in Caption1 in the appendix.
    4. Buttons on the toolbar of the program have many functions as follows:

– giving words that have been searched for

– opening each of the three incorporated dictionaries

– enlarging/reducing font size

– changing colors (display, entries etc.)

– viewing the illustration index

– printing out the results of a search

– moving to the first word in a given chapter of each of the dictionaries (example: moving to the wordزائد  when choosing ز , and the word ‘t’ when choosing the letter ‘t’)

– adding user words in case these are not available in the original dictionaries.  Such words are colored differently from other normal words.  They can be deleted at any time.

– copying an entry to be later pasted (with all its senses) in another application document (like Ms Word).

However, there seems to be one major problem in the English-Arabic Dictionary.  An entry is usually given there in terms of a number of senses that may in some cases, as in the entry ‘set’ for example, mislead the leaner when choosing the right meaning of the word in question.  But, there is no need to worry about this problem.  We will suggest a solution for it later on.

In fact, we should always keep in mind that a non-perfect dictionary is not necessarily a non-useful one.  Let us suggest here that a good learner is the one who tries to make use of the best features available in a number of dictionaries rather than stick to one dictionary and be vulnerable to failure in understanding a given word. Al-Qamos, by Sakhr Corporation

1. Components:

a. Five dictionaries for five languages: Arabic, English, French, German and Turkish.  You can use them bilingually or monolingually as well.b. dictionary of synonymsc. dictionary of antonymsd. word games: crosswords and secret words

2. Information Related Features:

Vowelisation of all Arabic words.

a. Pronunciation of all words in English and French only.
b. The English-Arabic dictionary gives all possible senses (to the best of my knowledge) of an entry.  This feature however is not always available in other dictionaries.
c. Idioms are observed in the five dictionaries.  This, as stated above, would be helpful in making a learner perceive as an idiom a group of words in certain contexts.

3. Technical Features

a.       Unlike Al-Mawrid, Sakhr Dictionary seems to be much more organized in displaying the senses of a given entry.  Every sense or expression under a given entry is listed alone, meaning that you can view its paraphrase alone.  This is a useful feature because you can easily see the sense, idiom or expression you need very clearly and easily.b.      This dictionary provides you with a word filter.  It means that you can limit the search result in accordance with the criteria you specify through the filtering function.  Example:The underlined captured picture shows the result of a search limited to:Sounds (field), noun (part of speech), general (stem), faeel (rhythm of the word) and general (level of difficulty) (see Appendix, Caption2):However, unfortunately, the dictionary’s filter does not allow you to browse words of similar sound ending, a feature needed by amateur poets who find themselves at times stuck with words that go with a special rhythm to help form the rhyme of a poem they are composing.c.       A special part is included under senses when applicable.  This part is concerned with idioms and expressions where a given sense of a word is used and should be understood idiomatically rather than literally.  Again it is important to point here to the clear display of these expressions making it comfortable for the learner to learn them.d.      Interactive games incorporated in the program are a plus, though they are not very useful for a busy learner.e.       Font sizes and types can be changed.

4. Disadvantages

a.       The search engine incorporated in Sakhr Dictionary suffers from some shortcomings.  I checked for the wordمستوصف and found no results, while there is a result for a search of the phrase مستوصف طبي.b.      The program does not allow you to copy all senses of a given entry.  You cannot copy all meanings as well.c.       Specific details concerning the word classes are not given.  It is important to know if a given verb is transitive or intransitive; a given noun countable or non-countable.d.      The program cannot be stored on the hard disk, which means more inconvenience and work imposed on the learner. Lingea Lexicon, ver 3.1

Lingea Lexicon is a combination of a number of reference books.  These are:

1-     Collins COBUILD English Dictionary for Advanced Learners (Year: 2001)

2-     Collins Thesaurus (Year 2001)

3-     Collins COBUILD English Usage (Year 1992)

4-     Collins COBUILD English Grammar (Year 1990)

5-     Workbank (Corpus from the Bank of English, year of publication not given)

As you can see in the captured images below, Collins Cobuild English Language Dictionary gives the user the chance to form a better understanding of the use of a given lexeme as it enjoys the following remarkable features that are indeed essential for the translator to make sure about his decision in choosing one word or idiom out of a number of very similar ones (see Appendix, Caption 3)

1-                      Under the label “D”, you can check for the meaning of the word, which preserves the standard features of paraphrasing it with adequate illustrations.  It is worth mentioning that the written version of Collins Cobuild English Language Dictionaryproved to have used the most efficient features to make a word understandable and easy to learn (Farhan 2003).  Here, the translator can understand the meaning of a new word.

2-                      Under the label “T”, the dictionary lists a number of synonyms of the word “better” (superior, excellent, well, cured, etc.) classified under a number of categories determining the meaning of the word “better”.  Here, a translator may have the chance to use other words similar in meaning to the one he is looking for.

3-                      Under the title “U”, the dictionary provides the learner with the grammatical rules of using the word “better” (see Appendix, Caption 4).  Here, the translator can learn some grammar rules of the word in question so that he can use it correctly and grammatically in his translation.

As it should be the case in an optimal electronic dictionary, Collins Cobuild English Language Dictionary provides pronunciation and it systematically uses a variety of colors as a part of its overall presentation. Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary

What most interests me in this dictionary is the filtering device it has.  To the best of my knowledge, this feature is peculiar to it and not duplicated by any other English-English dictionary.  Let us assume that the translator is to translate a line of poetry, in which case he needs a word in English that rhymes with another word.  The filter, (see Appendix, Caption 5), enables the researcher to look for a word that matches another one in rhyme, sound (homophones) or even etymology.  Microsoft Encarta World English Dictionary

The Encarta Dictionary does possess the ordinary features of a model electronic dictionary like pronunciation and sense relations.  Peculiar characteristics in this dictionary include: a dictionary of quotations, a thesaurus, a dictionary of computer terms and an almanac.   The most interesting feature of this dictionary, however, is its powerful simplified search engine.  In other dictionaries, when you want to check the meaning of an idiom like “green with envy”, you should try to find it under either entry “green” or “envy”, a tiresome task indeed.  Encarta Dictionary spares you this effort by enabling you to search idioms as if they were separate entries.  To search for the idiom “green with envy”, just type in the search box “green with envy” altogether and you will promptly find the answer (see Appendix, Caption 6)

“Multimedia” is another function provided by the Encarta Dictionary.  Just as some written dictionaries provide in the appendices pictures and information related to a diversity of fields such as geographical locations, by choosing the “Multimedia” function you enter a world made alive by either the picture or the sound or both where you can learn useful information about places, instruments, locations, schools of thought and so forth (see Appendix, Caption 7).

2.2.2. The Role of Encyclopedias

An ideal dictionary must provide for the actual use of a word in its natural context as used by native speakers.  Since the dictionary is not an encyclopedia, it is not expected to cover all details of the actual use of a given word, a role assigned to encyclopedias.

The Encarta Encyclopedia from Microsoft is marked by both the bulk of information and the powerful search engine it has.  Now, let me assume that I need to teach my students the translation of the word خرج from Arabic into English.  A typical student would simply check the bilingual dictionary and get a similar result to the following (Al-Mawrid 1999):

خَرَجَ: طَلَعَ, غادَرَ

to go out, come out, emerge, issue, egress; to walk out, drive out, ride out, move out, exit; to leave, depart, go away

خَرَجَ: نَزَلَ, تَرَجّلَ

to dismount, disembark, alight, get off, get out of, step out of

خَرَجَ: بَرَزَ

to protrude, project, bulge, stick out, jut out

Obviously the translation student would be stunned as he now faces more than one “equivalent” to the word خرج.  The problem is how to make sure that the word he is going to use in his translation is correct.  How to use for instance the word “bulge”?  Can you say in English “He bulged from the house”?  What about “protrude”?  And, most importantly, what about you, the teacher of the translation course?  Aren’t you supposed to know how to answer such an anticipated question?  A good solution, or even a perfect one, is to resort to the Encarta Encyclopedia.  Open the homepage of the Encarta and search for the word “bulge” then “protrude”.  The following results are self-explanatory as they show how the words “protrude” and “bulge” are used in a  sense different from that of the general word خرج.

“Frogs have large, bulging eyes and moist skin.” (Encarta 2004: Frog (animal))

“The ears, lips, and brow ridges protrude, and there is no tail.”  (Encarta 2004: Chimpanzee)

This encyclopedia is also useful for interpreters.  It is a good resource from which they can seek background information pertaining to issues and abbreviations required while performing the interpreting task.  Once again, it seems appropriate to refer to personal experience.  The first time I was asked to perform simultaneous interpreting was in a seminar related to labor issues.  The theme of the seminar was “Social Dialogue” and relevant issues covered such key points as “collective bargaining”, “labor organizations and conventions”, “social security in Jordan” and the like.  A day ahead of the event, I checked the Encarta Encyclopedia for all this information and benefited a lot and the result was that my first interpreting task was brilliantly performed.  The idea here is that when you do the translation or the interpreting job, especially when it is the first time, you have to be well prepared in order to impress the client on the one hand, and to foster self-confidence on the other hand.

2.2.3. Online Resources

Information and sites on the internet can be divided for the purposes of this paper into two types.  The first one is that which has a direct relation with translation training.  An example is www.sattaratun.com, which is a useful resource for legal translators.  By inserting the word you want (English or Arabic), this site opens a search-result page that shows where the word exactly appeared in a number of resources including all conventions of the United Nations.  Caption 8 in the appendix shows how rich these resources are

Checking the word “provided” will lead to a search result of 33 documents as shown in Caption 9 in the appendix.

The second type of online resources I want to refer to is simply the web various search engines.  The procedure is simple.  Assume that you want to translate an article entitled تعديل قانون حقوق الطبع في الأردن.  What you need to do is simply to open the homepage of a good search engine and enter similar catchwords that can be for example “Jordan” “amendments” “copyright law”.  You will be surprised when you see many results that show similar reports from which you can get the terminology and the style that you need in making the translation.

Translation forums are also of importance.  The following I a brief on these forums/newsletter groups and the role they can play for a better translator’s performance:

1. Arab Professional Translators’ Society- Arab Translators’ Network (ATN-APTS)

The Arab Society for Professional Translators is a virtual society.  Its address is www.arabtranslators.org.  The newsletter group ishttp://groups.yahoo.com/group/atn-apts.  The services provided there are as follows:

  1. Through the yahoo group, a translator can ask for help in the translation of a word, term or expression (or anything else) and peer translators will give their opinions.  The group members have already helped each other in solving problems that they faced in translating given texts very efficiently.
  2. In the forums, ATN-APTS offers translators the chance to discuss translation issues related to all aspects of translation career and academic matters.  Some translators even chose to post their own glossaries, which are very useful for peer translators.  Training courses in translation are also offered through the forums for free.  Members of the forums can also post useful dictionaries on translation in all fields.
  3. The president of ATN-APTS, Dr. Nabil Chaiban published on the site his dictionary on business and management, which is a useful source for translators.

2. Arab Translation and Intercultural Dialogue Association (ATIDA)

ATIDA is a very active association.  Members meet in the forums where they discuss matters pertaining to translation.  New terms are introduced and links to useful sites, dictionaries and glossaries are regularly posted.  Their site address is: www.atida.org


Proz is a website that brings together professional translators.  Briefly, this is very useful and efficient site as it allows translators to post their questions on the translation of a term of phrase.  Amazingly, peer answers begin promptly to appear.  A good feature of this site is that it allows peer translators to give their degree of confidence, and increase/reduce the degree of confidence for other peer answers until a high-point answer is reached.  The site address is: http://www.proz.com/kudoz.

3.2.3. Ancillary Resources WinHTTrak Website Copier 3.33

This is a wonderful program that allows you to copy the whole content of a website with all its links.  It makes the website run smoothly on your PC when you are offline. Virtual PC

Al-Mawrid Electronic Dictionary (1999) is better in performance and is much smoother than later versions with one serious setback: it does not run under operating systems newer than Windows 98.  Virtual PC allows you to install a virtual PC system, like Windows 98, from which you can easily install Al-Mawrid Electronic Dictionary. Abu-Risha Online

After I graduated from the University of Jordan in 1999, I was asked by many students of translation to help them prepare for their exams.  For that reason came http://aburisha.tripod.com, which includes all terms and expressions that must be learned by a student before he or she graduates from the university.  Frequently asked questions about the theory of translation, a list of 1090 vocabulary items/expressions, and a collection of translated texts are also included in the site.

3.3. Written Resources

It is obvious that written dictionaries are among the written resources of a translator, but here I would point out more important resources with special reference to those resources available for the Jordanian trainee.  Once again, for the purposes of brevity, I will just refer to these resources with short explanations.

2.3.1. The Five Year Socio-Economic Plan

This is available at the Ministry of Planning both in Arabic and in English.  To translate an economic document, this resource is useful because it is full with economic terms used “undecontextualised”, which means a good understanding of the term to be used in a translation.

2.3.2. The Lower House

It is possible for anyone interested to get useful pamphlets from the Lower House Supplies Department (in English and Arabic).  These include the Jordanian Constitution (English and Arabic), the Parliament’s Bylaws (English and Arabic), and other similar documents.

Let me here point out to a personal experience with the written resources.  In early 2005, I was assigned to train the Iraqi parliamentary delegation of translators.  Their one-week intensive training proved to be more than efficient with a package that compiled many written materials including the socio-economic plan and the Parliament’s documents.

2.3.2. Nabeel Law Office Online

Though www.nabeelaw.com is an electronic website that provides legal information online, I will classify it for the purposes of this paper as a written resource in light of the various important documents it has in Arabic and in English. [4]

Let us assume that a translator is asked to translate the trademark law of a given country from Arabic into English.  The quoted website is useful because it provides a good translation of the Jordanian trade mark law.  Now, the translator should find it easy to translate the following terms and expressions:

-التعدي على العلامة التجارية

– السجل التجاري

– الجهات المختصة

– يشترط لتسجيل العلامة التجارية أن تكون ذات صفة فارقة

– توخيا للغرض المقصود من هذه المادة…

– يقتصر تسجيل العلامات التجارية على….

– العلامات التي تدل على صفة رسمية

2.3.3. Atlas Encyclopedic Dictionary

A good English-Arabic written dictionary must be encyclopedic because a pocket dictionary or even a big one that just gives the meaning of the word is not enough for the translator.  The editorial of Atlas Encyclopedic Dictionary mentions some features characterising this dictionary.  It says it saves the researcher or the translator the time of checking many reference books to answer many questions in mind related to meaning and grammar.  It incorporates various useful appendices including one for abbreviations.  When defining the meaning of a word, it goes beyond giving the meaning and pronunciation of the various senses of the word as it gives other important features such as: verb regular/irregular forms, countable/non-countable nouns and word inflections.  Giving the semantic domain of a word when necessary is also an advantage for this dictionary.

2.3.4. MA Theses on Translation

Students of translation in Jordan are advised to check MA theses on translation, which can be found at the libraries of Yarmouk University and the University of Jordan.  These theses deal with problems of translation in a number of areas such as collocations, intertextuality, pragmatics, Quranic translation, translation criticism, contrastive textology and so forth.  Examining the problems and solutions posited in these studies is very useful for a translator as you can have about 100 pages written about the process of translating a few utterances.  A student who cares to deal in depth with the process of translating would have a plus advantage over any other translator who has never encountered these studies.

Besides, all MA theses provide theoretical background, reviews of related literature and lists of bibliography.  This is very useful and would enable the trainee translator to be briefed of translation theories in a way that does not consume his/her invaluable time.

2.3.5. Newspapers

How would you use newspapers as a good resource to translate a sentence like: “غادر الرئيس الأمريكي إلى منطقة الشرق الأوسط في رحلة تشمل ثلاث دول.”?    The answer is very simple: check an English newspaper.  The more challenging question now is “What chance would I have to find the required translation when checking an English newspaper?”  The answer is once again simple.  With newspapers, a translator should keep himself in an ongoing self-training process in translation whereby he/she reads an Arabic newspaper and an English one making sure that both were published on the same day.  The Arabic and English versions would most likely highlight the same events.  This means that the expression that you found difficult to translate from Arabic might appear, now, in English in the other version.  Considering our example, by following this way, Abu-Risha (2006) found the following translation:

“US president left for the Middle East in a three-leg tour.”

The next step now is to build up your own notebook with all these expressions.  This notebook will serve as a dictionary of sentences and expressions.  Consider the following examples (Abu-Risha, 2006: p. 27)

وبعد الانفجار لو تعلن أي جهة مسئوليتها عن الحادث.

There was no immediate claim of responsibility for the bombing.

ورفض المسئولون الفلسطينيون تحمل مسئولية الانفجار.

Palestinian officials rejected responsibility for the bombing.

في تلك البلاد التي دمرتها الحرب in that war-ravaged country

4. Conclusion

The present paper is an attempt to shed light on several important resources that can enhance the translator’s job.  Electronic and written translation resources can dramatically change the way in which a translator does his job, and I do hope that this paper has adequately explained that.  In the translation pedagogy, a lot of efforts are needed to reach a stage whereby a trainee in translation can self-train himself so efficiently to support the Arab translation market, which suffers a lot from a dearth of qualified and ever self-developing translators.

[1] This paper was presented in Atlas Seventh Conference on Translation and Lexicography held at Zarqa Private University, Jordan in December 2005.

[2] Yes, the skill to translate can be lost if the translator is not keen to keep abreast with developments in all fields and disciplines (e.g. globalization, economics, mathematics, medicine, biology, technology, etc.)

[3] There is no exaggeration in this statement.  Personal experience with students of translation since the year 2000 proved that most translation mistakes are due to lack of students’ interest to check relevant resources.

[4] This is a resource from which you can get written material.  Therefore, it cannot be considered as an electronic resource because it does not employ any electronic feature for the retrieving of information.


  1. Abbas, Suleiman (ed.) .2006. Atlas Journal for Studies and Research. Mohammed Abu-Risha “Towards more efficient courses of translation”. Vol.1:1. Atlas Global Centre for Studies and Research. Amman
  2. Al-Qamos (1999). Al-aAlameya Corporation (Sakhr)
  3. Atlas Encyclopedic Dictionary (2002). Atlas Global Centre.
  4. Farhan, I. (ed). 2003. Zarka Journal for Studies and Research.Mohammed Abu-Risha “What should a learner’s dictionary be made of?” Vol 5, No.1, June 2003. Zarka Private University. Jordan.  (pp. 21-52)
  5. Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia (2004). Microsoft Corporation.
  6. Microsoft Encarta World English Dictionary (1999). Microsoft Corporation

Online References:

  1. Abu-Risha, M. 2006. Lectures in Translation. Retrieved fromhttp://aburisha.tripod.com/lectures.doc on October 13, 2005
  2. www.nabeelaw.com
  3. http://www.sattarsite.com/termpage.htm
  4. www.arabtranslators.org
  5. www.atida.org
  6. http://www.proz.com/kudoz


ARABTERM Search Results: 33 documents for ‘[en]=provided’

Card English Arabic French Spanish
As provided in article.. وفق ما تنص عليه المادة
Except as provided for in paragraph 3, the territorial sea, the contiguous zone, the exclusive economic zone and the continental shelf of an island are determined in accordance with the provisions of this Convention applicable to other land territory. باستثناء ما هو منصوص عليه في الفقرة 3, يحدد البحر الإقليمي للجزيرة ومنطقتها المتاخمة ومنطقتها الاقتصادية الخالصة وجرفها القاري وفقا لأحكام هذه الاتفاقية المنطبقة على الأقاليمالبرية الأخرى.
In the cases provided for in paragraph 1, the warship may proceed to verify the ship’s right to fly its flag. To this end, it may send a boat under the command of an officer to the suspected ship. If suspicion remains after the documents have been checked, it may proceed to a further examination on board the ship, which must be carried out with all possible consideration. في الحالات المنصوص عليها في الفقرة 1, يجوز للسفينة الحربية أن تشرع في التحقق من حق السفينة في رفع علمها. ولهذا الغرض, يجوز لها أن ترسل زورقا تحت قيادة أحد الضباط إلى السفينة المشتبه فيها. وإذا بقيت الشبهة بعد تدقيق الوثائق, جاز لها أن تشرع في المزيد من الفحص على ظهر السفينة, وينبغي أن يتم ذلك بكل ما يمكن منالمراعاة.
Pending agreement as provided for in paragraph 1, the States concerned, in a spirit of understanding and co-operation, shall make every effort to enter into provisional arrangements of a practical nature and, during this transitional period, not to jeopardize or hamper the reaching of the final agreement. Such arrangements shall be without prejudice to the final delimitation. في انتظار التوصل إلى اتفاق وفقا لما هو منصوص عليه في الفقرة 1, تبذل الدول المعنية, بروح منالتفاهم والتعاون, قصارى جهودها للدخول في ترتيبات مؤقتة ذات طابع عملي, وتعمل خلال هذه الفترة الانتقالية على عدم تعريض التوصل إلى الاتفاق النهائي للخطر أو إعاقته. ولا تنطوي هذه الترتيبات على أي مساس بأمر تعيين الحدودالنهائي.
Rights provided under articles 69 and 70 to exploit living resources shall not be directly or indirectly transferred to third States or their nationals by lease or licence, by establishing joint ventures or in any other manner which has the effect of such transfer unless otherwise agreed by the States concerned. لا تنقل حقوق استغلال الموارد الحية المنصوص عليها بموجب المادتين 69 و 70, بشكل مباشر أو غيرمباشر, إلى دول ثالثة أو إلى رعاياها, سواء بالتأجير أو بالترخيص أو بإقامة مشاريع مشتركة أو بأية طريقة أخرى يكون لها أثر إحداث ذلك النقل ما لم تتفق الدول المعنية على غير ذلك.
Except as provided in Part XII or with respect to violations of laws and regulations adopted in accordance with Part V, the coastal State may not take any steps on board a foreign ship passing through the territorial sea to arrest any person or to conduct any investigation in connection with any crime committed before the ship entered the territorial sea, if the ship, proceeding from a foreign port, is only passing through the territorial sea without entering internal waters. باستثناء ما هو منصوص عليه في أحكام الجزء الثاني عشر أو في حال انتهاك القوانين والأنظمة المعتمدة وفقا للجزء الخامس, لا يجوز للدولة الساحلية أن تتخذ أية خطوات على ظهر سفينةأجنبية مارة خلال البحر الإقليمي من أجل توقيف أي شخص أو إجراء أي تحقيق بصدد أية جريمة ارتكبت قبل دخول السفينة البحر الإقليمي إذا كانت السفينة قادمة من ميناء أجنبي ومارة فقط خلال البحر الإقليمي دون دخول المياهالداخلية.
In the cases provided for in paragraphs 1 and 2, the coastal State shall, if the master so requests, notify a diplomatic agent or consular officer of the flag State before taking any steps, and shall facilitate contact between such agent or officer and the ship’s crew. In cases of emergency this notification may be communicated while the measures are being taken. في الحالات المنصوص عليها في الفقرتين 1 و 2, تخطر الدولة الساحلية, إذا طلب منها الربان ذلك,ممثلا دبلوماسيا أو موظفا قنصليا تابعا لدولة العلم قبل اتخاذ أية تدابير, وتسهلالاتصال بين هذا الممثل أو الموظف وطاقم السفينة. ويجوز في حالات الطوارئ إرسال هذا الإخطار أثناء اتخاذ التدابير.
Except as provided in Part IV, waters on the landward side of the baseline of the territorial sea form part of the internal waters of the State. باستثناء ما هو منصوص عليه في الجزء الرابع, تشكل المياه الواقعة على الجانب المواجه للبر من خطالأساس للبحر الإقليمي جزءا من المياه الداخلية للدولة.
Except where otherwise provided in this Convention, the normal baseline for measuring the breadth of the territorial sea is the low-water line along the coast as marked on large-scale charts officially recognized by the coastal State. باستثناء الحالات التي تنص فيها هذه الاتفاقية علىغير ذلك, خط الأساس العادي لقياس عرض البحرالإقليمي هو حد أدنى الجزر على امتداد الساحل كما هو مبين على الخرائط ذات المقياس الكبير المعترف بها رسميا من قبل الدولة الساحلية.
the rights and duties as well as the interests of coastal States provided for, inter alia, in article 63, paragraph 2, and articles 64 to 67; and وحقوق الدول الساحلية وواجباتها وكذلك مصالحها المنصوص عليها, بين مواد أخرى, في الفقرة 2 منالمادة 63 وفي الماد 64 إلى 67
If the suspicions prove to be unfounded, and provided that the ship boarded has not committed any act justifying them, it shall be compensated for any loss or damage that may have been sustained. إذا ثبت أن الشبهات لم يكن لها أي أساس, وبشرط أن لا تكون السفينة المتفقدة قد ارتكبت أي عمل يبرر تلك الشبهات, جرى تعويضها عن أية خسائر أو أضرار تكون قدتكبدتها.
Ships shall sail under the flag of one State only and, save in exceptional cases expressly provided for in international treaties or in this Convention, shall be subject to its exclusive jurisdiction on the high seas. A ship may not change its flag during a voyage or while in a port of call, save in the case of a real transfer of ownership or change of registry. تبحر السفينة تحت علم دولة واحدة فقط, وتكون خاضعة لولايتها الخالصة في أعالي البحار إلا في حالاتاستثنائية منصوص عليها صراحة في معاهدات دولية أو في هذه الاتفاقية. ولا يجوز للسفينة أن تغيـر علمها أثناء رحلة ما أو أثناء وجودها في ميناء زيارة, إلا في حالة نقل حقيقي للملكية أو تغيير في التسجيل.
The continental shelf of a coastal State shall not extend beyond the limits provided for in paragraphs 4 to 6. لا يمتد الجرف القاري لأي دولة ساحلية إلى ما وراء الحدود المنصوص عليها في الفقرات 4 إلى 6.
If no agreement can be reached within a reasonable period of time, the States concerned shall resort to the procedures provided for in Part XV. إذا تعذر التوصل إلى اتفاق في غضون فترة معقولة من الزمن, لجأت الدول المعنية إلى الإجراءات المنصوصعليها في الجزء الخامس عشر.
installations and structures for the purposes provided for in article 56 and other economic purposes المنشآت والتركيبات المستخدمة في الأغراض المنصوص عليها في المادة 56 وفي غير ذلك منالأغراض الاقتصادية
other rights and duties provided for in this Convention الحقوق والواجبات الأخرى المنصوص عليها في هذه الاتفاقية
jurisdiction as provided for in the relevant provisions of this Convention with regard to: ولاية على الوجه المنصوص عليه في الأحكام ذات الصلة من هذه الاتفاقية فيما يتعلق بما يلي:
An archipelagic State may draw straight archipelagic baselines joining the outermost points of the outermost islands and drying reefs of the archipelago provided that within such baselines are included the main islands and an area in which the ratio of the area of the water to the area of the land, including atolls, is between 1 to 1 and 9 to 1. يجوز للدولة الأرخبيلية أن ترسم خطوط أساس أرخبيلية مستقيمة تربط بين أبعد النقاط في أبعد الجزر وبين الشعاب المتقطعة الانغمار في الأرخبيل على شرط أن تضم خطوط الأساس هذه الجزر الرئيسية وقطاعا تتراوح فيه نسبة مساحة المياه إلى مساحة اليابسة, بما فيها الحلقاتالمرجانية, ما بين 1 إلى 1 و 9 إلى 1.
the safety of navigation and the regulation of maritime traffic, as provided in article 41 سلامة الملاحة وتنظيم حركة المرور البحري كما هو منصوص عليه في المادة 41
The coastal State may determine baselines in turn by any of the methods provided for in the foregoing articles to suit different conditions. يجوز للدولة الساحلية أن تحدد خطوط الأساس تباعا بأية طريقة من الطرق المنصوص عليها في الموادالسابقة بما يناسب اختلاف الظروف.
The foregoing provisions do not apply to so-called “historic” bays, or in any case where the system of straight baselines provided for in article 7 is applied. لا تنطبق الأحكام الآنفة الذكر على ما يسمى بالخلجان “التاريخية”, ولا في أية حالة يطبق فيها نظام خطوط الأساس المستقيمة المنصوص عليه في المادة 7.
(ii)placement of matter for a purpose other than the mere disposal thereof, provided that such placement is not contrary to the aims of this Convention. إيداع مواد لغرض غير مجرد التخلص منها, بشرط ألا يتعارض هذا الإيداع مع مقاصد هذه الاتفاقية.
Government-provided personnel الأفراد المقدمون من الحكومات
Services provided الخدمات المقدمة
Government provided personnel الموظفون المقدمون من الحكومات
Every State shall adopt the laws and regulations necessary to ensure that the owners of ships who can prove that they have sacrificed an anchor, a net or any other fishing gear, in order to avoid injuring a submarine cable or pipeline, shall be indemnified by the owner of the cable or pipeline, provided that the owner of the ship has taken all reasonable precautionary measures beforehand. تعتمد كل دولة ما يلزم من القوانين والأنظمة لضمان حصول أصحاب السفن الذين يستطيعون أن يثبتوا أنهمضحوا بمرساة أو شبكة أو أية أداة من أدوات الصيد الأخرى, بغية تفادي إصابة أحد الكابلات أو خطوط الأنابيب المغمورة, على تعويض من صاحب الكابل أو خط الأنابيب بشرط أن يكون صاحب السفينة قد اتخذ مسبقا كل التدابير الاحتياطية المعقولة.
The exercise of the rights of the coastal State over the continental shelf must not infringe or result in any unjustifiable interference with navigation and other rights and freedoms of other States as provided for in this Convention. لا يجب أن تتعدى ممارسة الدولة الساحلية لحقوقها على الجرف القاري على الملاحة وغيرها من حقوقوحريات الدول الأخرى المنصوص عليها في هذه الاتفاقية أو أن تسفر عن أي تدخل لا مبرر له في تلك الملاحة والحقوق والحريات.
The foregoing provision does not preclude the States concerned from obtaining technical or financial assistance from third States or international organizations in order to facilitate the exercise of the rights pursuant to articles 69 and 70, provided that it does not have the effect referred to in paragraph 1. لا يحول الحكم الآنف الذكر دون حصول الدول المعنية على مساعدة فنية أو مالية من دول ثالثة أو منمنظمات دولية بغرض تيسير ممارسة الحقوق المنصوص عليها في المادتين 69 و 70, بشرط أن لا يكون لهذه المساعدة الأثر المشار إليه في الفقرة 1.
Nothing in this Part restricts the right of a coastal State or the competence of an international organization, as appropriate, to prohibit, limit or regulate the exploitation of marine mammals more strictly than provided for in this Part. States shall co-operate with a view to the conservation of marine mammals and in the case of cetaceans shall in particular work through the appropriate international organizations for their conservation, management and study. ليس في هذا الجزء ما يحد من حق دولة ساحلية أو من اختصاص منظمة دولية, حسب الاقتضاء, في حظر استغلال الثدييات البحرية أو تقييده أو تنظيمه على نحو أكثر صرامة مما هو منصوص عليه في هذا الجزء. وتتعاون الدول من أجل حفظ الثدييات البحرية, وعليها, في حالة الحيتانيات, أنتعمل بصورة خاصة من خلال المنظمات الدولية المناسبة على حفظها وإدارتهاودراستها.
The State of origin of anadromous stocks shall ensure their conservation by the establishment of appropriate regulatory measures for fishing in all waters landward of the outer limits of its exclusive economic zone and for fishing provided for in paragraph The State of origin may, after consultations with the other States referred to in paragraphs 3 and 4 fishing these stocks, establish total allowable catches for stocks originating in its rivers. تكفل دولة منشأ الأنواع البحرية النهرية السرء حفظ هذه الأنواع عن طريق وضع التدابير المناسبة لتنظيم الصيد في جميع المياه التي تقع في اتجاه البر من الحدود الخارجية لمنطقتهاالاقتصادية الخالصة ولتنظيم الصيد المنصوص عليه في الفقرة الفرعية من الفقرة ولدولة المنشأ أن تحدد, بعد التشاور مع الدول الأخرى المذكورة في الفقرتين 3 و 4 والتي تقوم بصيد هذه الأنواع, مجموع الكميات المسموح بصيدها من الأنواع التي يكون منشؤهافي أنهار
Such sea lanes and air routes shall be defined by a series of continuous axis lines from the entry points of passage routes to the exit points. Ships and aircraft in archipelagic sea lanes passage shall not deviate more than 25 nautical miles to either side of such axis lines during passage, provided that such ships and aircraft shall not navigate closer to the coasts than 10 per cent of the distance between the nearest points on islands bordering the sea lane. يتم تحديد هذه الممرات البحرية والطرق الجوية بسلسلة خطوط محورية متواصلة من نقاط دخول طرق المرور إلى نقاط الخروج منها. وعلى السفن والطائرات المارة في الممرات البحرية الأرخبيليةأن لا تنحرف أكثر من 25 ميلا بحريا إلى أي من جانبي هذه الخطوط المحورية أثناء مرورها, بشرط أن لا تسير هذه السفن والطائرات على مسافة يزيد قربها إلى الشاطئ على عشرة في المائة من المسافة بين أقرب النقاط على الجزر المشاطئة للممر البحري.
Such sea lanes and air routes shall traverse the archipelagic waters and the adjacent territorial sea and shall include all normal passage routes used as routes for international navigation or overflight through or over archipelagic waters and, within such routes, so far as ships are concerned, all normal navigational channels, provided that duplication of routes of similar convenience between the same entry and exit points shall not be necessary. تجتاز هذه الممرات البحرية والطرق الجوية المياه الأرخبيلية والبحر الإقليمي الملاصق, وتشمل جميع طرق المرور العادية المستخدمة كطرق للملاحة أو التحليق الدوليين خلال المياه الأرخبيلية أو فوقها كما تشمل, داخل هذه الطرق, فيما يتعلق بالسفن, جميع القنوات الملاحية العادية, شريطة أن لا يكون من الضروري إنشاء طرق جديدة تماثلها في الملاءمة بين نفس نقطتي الدخول والخروج.
Where the establishment of a straight baseline in accordance with the method set forth in article 7 has the effect of enclosing as internal waters areas which had not previously been considered as such, a right of innocent passage as provided in this Convention shall exist in those waters. حيث يؤدي تقرير خطالأساس المستقيم وفقا للطريقة المبينة في المادة 7 إلى حصر مساحات مائية وجعلها مياها داخلية بعد أن لم تكن تُعتبر كذلك من قبل, ينطبق على تلك المياه حق المرور البرئ كما هو منصوص عليه في هذه الاتفاقية.

This article was originally published in Atlas Journal for Studies and Research. Vol1 No. 2, June 2006.

كلمات خاصة بمحركات البحث: دورة الترجمة الصحفية دورة الترجمة القانونية دورة الترجمة التتابعية دورة الترجمة التحريرية دورة الترجمة الفورية دورة الترجمة العامة دورة الترجمة المتخصصة دورة الترجمة الآلية دورة الترجمة الإدارية دورة الترجمة الاقتصادية دورة الترجمة الأدبية دورة الترجمة العلمية دورة الترجمة الإنسانية دورة الترجمة دورة الترجمة المحاسبية دورة الترجمة الدينية

الخبرة في مجال الترجمة

خدمات الترجمة الفورية والتحريرية

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

ألخص خبرتي في الترجمة كما هو آت:

1- الترجمة الفورية:

جميع المؤتمرات وورشات العمل في كافة التخصصات الادارية والاقتصادية والمنظمات الدولية وحقوق الإنسان والمال والأعمال وشؤون اللاجئين والنازحين ومنظمات المجتمع الدولي .

2- الترجمة التحريرية:

– ترجمة القوانين والأنظمة واللوائح الداخلية بين اللغتين

– ترجمة العقود التجارية بين اللغتين

– ترجمة الاتفاقيات التعاونية والدولية بين اللغتين

– ترجمة الوثائق بشكل عام في كافة التخصصات الاقتصادية والقانونية والإدارية والعلمية ومنظمات المجتمع الدولي، عقود تأسيس الشركات، قرارات المحاكم، المرافعات، الوكالات، وغيرها من وثائق.

– ترجمة الكتب في كافة التخصصات

3- التحرير اللغوي وإعادة الصياغة باللغتين العربية والانجليزية.

تصورات حول منهجية تعليم دورات في الترجمة التحريرية

دورات الترجمة في الأردن دورات الترجمة في النت دورات الترجمة على الانترنت دورات الترجمة الفورية والتحريرية دورات الترجمة العربية دورات الترجمة الشفوية دورات الترجمة الكتابية برامج الترجمة كلية الترجمة جامعات الترجمة جمعية المترجمين جمعية اتراجمة رابطة المترجمين نقابة المترجمين دورة ترجمة الأفلام ترجمة فورية دورات الترجمة الزرقاء دورات الترجمة إربد دورات الترجمة أبوظبي دورات الترجمة دبي دورات الترجمة الرياض دورات الترجمة الصحفية دورات الترجمة ليبيا دورات الترجمة مصر دورات الترجمة السودان دورات الترجمة الإمارات

السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته

إذا كنت ترغب بالحصول على دورة في الترجمة، يرجى مراسلتي: maburisha at yahoo.com

كيف يمكن لمعلم الترجمة أن يقدّم دورة تدريبية يضمن من خلالها تخريج مترجمين أكفياء في تلك الدورة؟   في الأيام القادمة سوف نضع إن شاء الله تصوراً لبعض محاور الدروس والمنهجيات التعليمية الخاصة بتعليم الترجمة.

بشكل عام سوف نتطرق إلى الموضوعات التالية:

– دورة الترجمة العامة (1)

دورة الترجمة العامة من العربية إلى الانجليزية (المستوى الأول)

دورة الترجمة العامة من العربية إلى الانجليزية (المستوى الثاني)

– دورة الترجمة العامة من العربية إلى الانجليزية (المستوى الثالث)

دورة الترجمة العامة من العربية إلى الانجليزية (المستوى الرابع)

– دورة الترجمة الاقتصادية من الانجليزية إلى العربية

– دورة في الترجمة الاقتصادية من العربية إلى الانجليزية

– دورة في الترجمة الإدارية من الانجليزية إلى العربية

– دورة في الترجمة الإدارية من العربية إلى الانجليزية

– دورة الترجمة القانونية (المستوى 1)

– دورة الترجمة القانونية من العربية إلى الانجليزية (المستوى 1)

– دورة الترجمة القانونية من الانجليزية إلى العربية (المستوى 2)

– دورة الترجمة القانونية من العربية إلى الانجليزية (المستوى 2)

-دورة الترجمة الصحفية التأسيسية (1)

-دورة الترجمة الصحفية (2) من العربية إلى الإنجليزية

-دورة الترجمة الصحفية (3) من العربية إلى الإنجليزية

-دورة ترجمة الأفلام وبرمجياتها

– دورة بناء الذخيرة اللغوية وبناء المفردات

كلمات لمحرك البحث:

دورات الترجمة في الأردن دورات الترجمة في النت دورات الترجمة على الانترنت دورات الترجمة الفورية والتحريرية دورات الترجمة العربية دورات الترجمة الشفوية دورات الترجمة الكتابية برامج الترجمة كلية الترجمة جامعات الترجمة جمعية المترجمين جمعية اتراجمة رابطة المترجمين نقابة المترجمين دورة ترجمة الأفلام ترجمة فورية دورات الترجمة الزرقاء دورات الترجمة إربد دورات الترجمة أبوظبي دورات الترجمة دبي دورات الترجمة الرياض دورات الترجمة الصحفية دورات الترجمة ليبيا دورات الترجمة مصر دورات الترجمة السودان دورات الترجمة الإمارات